Birth History OF 🐧Linux🐧

11개월 전

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Linus Benedict Torvalds
Source

In December 1969, when the boy was born, did the journalist and poet Ole Torvalds realize that one day his grandchild will Stirred the world? But Ole Torvald's son Nils and his wife Anya, seems to understand that one day their son will be recognized by the whole world in one name. That's why they named the little boy Linus Benedict Torvalds after the Nobel Prize winning American chemist "Linus Pauling". Grandfather was a poet and journalist, and both parents were journalists, so it is easy to predict that the little Linus will follow his family. And Linus adopted the world of writing but it was different world with another type of writing. This son chose the digital world and got much pleasure in code language.

Since childhood, the boy was a little bit different, did not want to be associated with anyone and was not interested to play with others. His Father tried a lot to make the boy a bit social but all efforts were in vain. The boy has his own way. But no one else can understand or not, Linus's talent only but his grandfather.

Professor of statistics at the Helsinki University of Finland, gave this boy a personal computer - "Commodore VIC Twenty". Linus was so happy getting his first personal computer of his life! But after working with a small computer program, the happiness disappeared within a few days. Then there was no other way, Linus himself sat down to write the program.


The guy who change the thinking of the programmer

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Richard Matthew Stallman
source

It could be a research topic to the general that Richard Matthew Stallman was a full-grown man or not, though he started his career at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT. But it is true that for this person today the free software tide has started. In the early eighties, commercial software companies began to hand over the brilliant programmers of Artificial Intelligence Lab with a huge amount of money. They also started privacy on their software source code. That means, the ordinary people like like me do not have any right to know how any software was created. Normal people limited by using the software to buy money. If anyone wants to know it then he will bound by the law because those are copyrighted! If you have money, you can use the software to buy it. And if you do not have the ability to buy then the software is not for you. But Richard Stallman's view was different. According to him, these stereotypes rules are totally inappropriate and unethical in software development. According to his ideas, the software will be free, so that the software can be adapted by anyone, so the software development will be faster. In the interest of the software, it should not be stuck with any rule.

He started the free software movement, created an organization with equal people, named "GNU". A new era begins with writing free software. But to make this movement more vigorous it was necessary to have a free operating system. That’s why it requires more software, especially a compiler. To reach the objective, Stallman started writing the compiler. In a few days with his great programming skills, he finished the compiling work of compilers and named it GNU compiler or GCC.

GCC is considered one of the most effective compilers. Then GNU started to write the operating system. The heart of any operating system is kernel, based on the kernel, any operating system is developed. He had built a Kernel named GNU HURD. But it had failed to attract developers. As a result, without an operating system the GNU was uncomplete. For completing GNU requires a free operating system, even before it needs a free kernel Otherwise, the whole movement of free software has stopped.

Birth of new operating system


In 1991, when Linus was a second-year student of Helsinki University has bought a personal computer of IBM Intel 386 processor. This presser was much better than Intel's previous processors. that time the MSDS operating system was available with IBM. Linus was not happy with the use of MSDS, because it did not have the capability to fully use Intel's 386 processor. Linus wanted to use a more powerful UNIX operating system. Another reason was that he was accustomed using Unix in his university. So the convenience of work it would be good to have same operating system on his PC. He tried to get Unix but he gave up when he saw that Unix was worth $ 5000!

Linus then try for Minix. Minix was like UNIX operating System which was authored by Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum. It was just like was a small clone of Unix, but not completely cloned. The professor used to use Minix to explain the inside of the operating system when he was taking classes of his students. Minix's code was somewhat open. At that time, anyone who bought the book "Operating System: Design and Implementation" by Professor Tanenbaum, could get the 12000 lines code of Minix's. Although the whole code was not open, at that time it was lucky to get partial code of an operating system. But there was a problem, there was no license to change the code of Minix. Moreover, it was not just a tool to teach students, it is not what the whole operating system. Anyway, Linus bought one of those things. Then, after analyzing, he realized that the operating system was not appropriate to meet his needs. After that, Linus took a big decision . That Linus by himself will make an operating system. Again, from zero, on the basis of Minix and Unix, a completely new operating system!

For the text-based user interface, Linus added GNU compiler (GCC) created by Stallman for compiling & the GNU bass shell by setting up a rough framework, Linus wants to tell everyone in the Minix user group about his new operating system. He thought maybe some may even help him in this regard. With hesitant, he posted the following historical email group:


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Linus never imagined that his hobby-based operating system would make a huge difference in the world.
On September 17 of that year, Linus released the first version of its operating system 0.01. Gradually the others continued to gather. They downloaded the OS and modify it to their own version and then sending the modified version to Linus. His new operating system was growing. The first official version 0.02 was release on 5th October of the same year. Another mail from Linus:

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Version 0.03 was release in a few weeks. Version 0.10 was release in December of that year. In this way, Linux is going to continue.

The Linux Trail

Linus's hobby was that his operating system would be named "FREAKS", which is combination of the three form of "Free", "Freak" and "Unix". But Erry Lemk did not like the name. Ari Lemk was a friend and colleague of Linus and an FTP administrator at Helsinki University. With FTP server, anyone can easily share any file with everyone. Erry gave Linus the idea about to share the source code of the new OS on the FTP server, so that the code is open to everyone on the planet and anyone who wants can use it.

However, the name “Freaks" was not like by Erry. He left the code on FTP server in a folder named "Linux". The simplest thing is that Linux's name comes from the head of "Linus's Unix". The name of the name is now known as the name was not the actual name, which is actually the name of the folder to download it.

In 1996 Linus announced that there would be a mascot for Linux, a penguin. Many have expressed objection about this mascot. He mentioned that he was bitten by a little penguin (Eudyptula minor) on a visit to the National Zoo & Aquarium in Canberra, Australia. Linus said "Many people say that the symbol of Linux is a bizarre Penguin? who said they never saw a raging penguin to attack 100 miles per hour".

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Andrew Stuart Tanenbaum
source

Tanenbaum once said to Linus that at the beginning of the creation of Linux: "I still think in 1991 that to design a monolithic kernel means necklace work. You're lucky that you are not my student, otherwise you would never get more grades from me for such a bad design." Not only that, Tanenbaum called it "absolutely outdated”. Professors like Tannenbaum were gigantic at the time of the talk. At that time man like Tannenbaum were treated very fearfully. But he was wrong about Linux.

Reference

    Textbook: 'Sohoj Ubuntu Sikkha' by Adnan Kayum

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