Cannabis Cures Leukemia/Lymphoma & Treats Chemo Cardiotoxicity

6개월 전

Leukemia and lymphoma are cancers of the blood, lymphatic and immune systems. It was first discovered in 1975 that cannabinoids treat leukemia, and there have been dozens of scientific studies published since then showing that cannabis treats leukemia and lymphoma through various mechanisms. Even in humans!

proxy-image.jpg
www.bravemykayla.com

Many cannabinoids, like the quintessential Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinnol (THC), treat leukemia, alone and in combination with cannabidiol. The synergistic effects go far beyond THC and CBD; there are many other cannabinoids. The few combinations studied so far using cannabigerol (CBG), cannabigervarin (CBGV) and their uncarboxylated acidic forms provide a therapeutic entourage effect against leukemia.

β-Caryophyllene, a terpene found in the cannabis plant is also anticancer and cardioprotective. β-Caryophyllene was challenged against doxorubicin in a 6-week treatment in rats. Treatment showed significant cardioprotection by lowereing inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis of healthy heart tissue.

CBD leukemia.jpg

The standard mainstream approach, on the other hand, is bone-marrow transplants, full-body radiation, and doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic drug for solid tumors and leukemia/lymphoma. Doxorubicin use is limited because of its lethal cardiotoxicity. Through mechanisms independent of the cannabinoid receptors, cannabidiol (CBD) is also anti-leukemic and cardioprotective, especically against doxorubicin.

Jurkat CBD.png

Given the cardioprotective and anti-cancer effects, CB2 receptor activation is being "considered as a viable strategy for chemotherapy as well as cardioprotection". What researchers don't exactly say is that cannabinoid therapy is not only more effective and less dangerous, it mitigates lethality of standard, revered treatments.

proxy-image (1).jpg

Sources:

Munson, A. E. et al (1975). Antineoplastic activity of cannabinoids. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol 55(3), pp. 597–602. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/55.3.597

Carchman, R. A., Harris, L. S. & Munson, A. E. (1976). The inhibition of DNA synthesis by cannabinoids Cancer research, 36(1), 95–100

Tucker, A. N. & Friedman, M. A. (1977). Effects of cannabinoids on L1210 murine leukemia. Part 1. Inhibition of DNA synthesis Research communications in chemical pathology and pharmacology, 17(4), 703–714.

Tucker, A. N. & Friedman, M. A. (1979). Effects of cannabinoids on L1210 murine leukemia. III. Inhibition of respiration Research communications in chemical pathology and pharmacology, 23(2), 327–332.

Dvilansky, A. et al (1984). Effects of ethanol, CBD and delta 'THC on proliferation of K-562 cells. International journal of tissue reactions, 6(5), 409–412.

Murison, G. et al (1987). Cannabinoids induce incomplete maturation of cultured human leukemia cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 84(15), 5414–5418.

Rowley, J. T. & Rowley, P. T. (1990). Tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits adenyl cyclase in human leukemia cells. Life sciences, 46(3), 217–222.

Specter, S. et al (1991). Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol augments murine retroviral induced immunosuppression and infection. International journal of immunopharmacology, 13(4), 411–417.

Bouaboula, M. et al (1993). Cannabinoid-receptor expression in human leukocytes. European journal of biochemistry, 214(1), 173–180

Abrahamov, A., et al (1995). An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology. Life sciences, 56(23-24), 2097–2102.

Valk, P. et al (1997). Anandamide, a natural ligand for the peripheral cannabinoid receptor is a novel synergistic growth factor for hematopoietic cells. Blood, 90(4), 1448–1457.

Valk. P. et al (1998). The peripheral cannabinoid receptor, Cb2, in retrovirally-induced leukemic transformation and normal hematopoiesis. Leukemia & lymphoma, 32(1-2), 29–43.

Bisogno, T. et al (2000). N-acyl-dopamines: novel synthetic CB(1) cannabinoid-receptor ligands and inhibitors of anandamide inactivation with cannabimimetic activity in vitro and in vivo. The Biochemical journal, 351 Pt 3(Pt 3), 817–824.

Chmura, S.J. (2000). Down-regulation of ceramide production abrogates ionizing radiation-induced cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Molecular pharmacology, 57(4), 792–796.

Maccarrone, M. et al (2000). Anandamide induces apoptosis in human cells via vanilloid receptors. Evidence for a protective role of cannabinoid receptors. The Journal of biological chemistry, 275(41), 31938–31945.

Molnar, J. et al (2000). Membrane associated antitumor effects of crocine-, ginsenoside- and cannabinoid derivates. Anticancer research, 20(2A), 861–867.

Pandey, P. et al (2000). Down-regulation of ceramide production abrogates ionizing radiation-induced cytochrome c release and apoptosis. Molecular pharmacology, 57(4), 792–796

Jacobsson, S. O. & Fowler, C. J. (2001). Characterization of palmitoylethanolamide transport in mouse Neuro-2a neuroblastoma and rat RBL-2H3 basophilic leukaemia cells: comparison with anandamide. British journal of pharmacology, 132(8), 1743–1754.

McKallip, R. J., et al (2002). Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease. Blood, 100(2), 627–634.

Jordà, M. A. et al (2002). Hematopoietic cells expressing the peripheral cannabinoid receptor migrate in response to the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Blood, 99(8), 2786–2793.

Islam, T.C. et al (2003). High level of cannabinoid receptor 1, absence of regulator of G protein signalling 13 and differential expression of Cyclin D1 in mantle cell lymphoma. Leukemia, 17(9), 1880–1890.

Gallily, R. et al (2003). Gamma-irradiation enhances apoptosis induced by cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic cannabinoid, in cultured HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells. Leukemia & lymphoma, 44(10), 1767–1773.

Rao, G. K. (2004).Cannabinoid receptor-mediated regulation of intracellular calcium by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in resting T cells. Journal of leukocyte biology, 75(5), 884–892.

Flygare, J. et al (2005). Cannabinoid receptor ligands mediate growth inhibition and cell death in mantle cell lymphoma. FEBS letters, 579(30), 6885–6889.

Lombard, C. et al (2005). Targeting cannabinoid receptors to treat leukemia: role of cross-talk between extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-induced apoptosis of Jurkat cells. Leukemia research, 29(8), 915–922.

Herrera, B. et al (2005). p38 MAPK is involved in CB2 receptor-induced apoptosis of human leukaemia cells. FEBS letters, 579(22), 5084–5088.

Kishimoto, S. et al (2005). Endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand induces the migration of human natural killer cells. ournal of biochemistry, 137(2), 217–223.

McKallip, R. J. et al (2006). Cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells: A novel role of cannabidiol in the regulation of p22phox and Nox4 expression. Molecular Pharmacology Vol 70(3), pp. 897‐908.

Holland, M. L. et al (2006). The effects of cannabinoids on P-glycoprotein transport and expression in multidrug resistant cells. Biochemical pharmacology, 71(8), 1146–1154.

*Jia, W. et al (2006). Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells is regulated by translocation of Bad to mitochondria. Molecular cancer research : MCR, 4(8), 549–562.

Rao, G. K. & Kaminski, N. E. (2006).Induction of intracellular calcium elevation by Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in T cells involves TRPC1 channels. Journal of leukocyte biology, 79(1), 202–213.

*Rao, G. K. & Kaminski, N. E. (2006). Cannabinoid-mediated elevation of intracellular calcium: a structure-activity relationship. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 317(2), 820–829.

Herrera, B. et al (2006). The CB2 cannabinoid receptor signals apoptosis via ceramide-dependent activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. Experimental cell research, 312(11), 2121–2131.

Gustafsson, K. et al (2006) Cannabinoid receptor-mediated apoptosis induced by R(+)-methanandamide and Win55,212-2 is associated with ceramide accumulation and p38 activation in mantle cell lymphoma. Molecular pharmacology, 70(5), 1612–1620.

Giudice, E. D. et al (2007).Cannabidiol, unlike synthetic cannabinoids, triggers activation of RBL-2H3 mast cells. Leukocyte Biology. 81(6):1512‐1522.

Piczcz, J. A. e tal (2007) Cannabinoid receptors expression in bone marrow trephine biopsy of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients treated with purine analogues. Experimental oncology, 29(3), 221–225.

Richardson, S.J. et al (2007). Psysiological doses of cannabinoids do not adversely affect MCL viability. Leukemia and Lymphoma, Vol 48 (9).

Kogan, N.M. et al (2007). A cannabinoid anticancer quinone, HU-331, is more potent and less cardiotoxic than doxorubicin: a comparative in vivo study. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 322(2), 646–653.

Rayman, N. et al (2007). The expression of the peripheral cannabinoid receptor on cells of the immune system and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Leukemia & lymphoma, 48(7), 1389–1399.

Gustafsson, K. et al (2008). Expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: growth inhibition by receptor activation. International journal of cancer, 123(5), 1025–1033.

Gustafsson, K. et al (2009). Potentiation of cannabinoid-induced cytotoxicity in mantle cell lymphoma through modulation of ceramide metabolism. Molecular cancer research : MCR, 7(7), 1086–1098.

Liu, W. M. et al (2008). Enhancing the in vitro cytotoxic activity of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in leukemic cells through a combinatorial approach. Leukemia & lymphoma, 49(9), 1800–1809.

Wu, H. Y. et al (2010).Cannabidiol induced a contrasting pro-apoptotic effect between freshly isolated and precultured human monocytes. Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 246(3), 141–147.

Gallotta, D. et al (2010). Rimonabant-induced apoptosis in leukemia cell lines: activation of caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. Biochemical pharmacology, 80(3), 370–380

Paulson, K. et al (2011). The cannabinoid receptors agonist WIN55212-2 inhibits macrophageal differentiation and alters expression and phosphorylation of cell cycle control proteins. Cell communication and signaling : CCS, 9, 33.

Wasik, A.M. et al (2011). The role of cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoid system in mantle cell lymphoma and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Seminars in cancer biology, 21(5), 313–321.

McSweeney, L.J. (2011). Cannabis versus combination chemotherapy; n = 1 trial in Hodgkin's lymphoma. Irish journal of medical science, 188(3), 1085–1086.

Scott, K. A. et al (2013). Enhancing the activity of cannabidiol and other cannabinoids in vitro through modifications to drug combinations and treatment schedules. Anticancer research, Vol. 33(10), pp. 4373–4380.

Singh, Y., & Bali, C. (2013). Cannabis extract treatment for terminal acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a Philadelphia chromosome mutation. Case reports in oncology, 6(3), 585–592. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000356446

Benz, A.H. et al (2013). Expression and functional relevance of cannabinoid receptor 1 in Hodgkin lymphoma. PloS one, 8(12), e81675.

Wasik, A.M. et al (2014). Perturbations of the endocannabinoid system in mantle cell lymphoma: correlations to clinical and pathological features. Oncoscience, 1(8), 550–557.

Nabissi, M. et al (2015). Cannabidiol stimulates Aml-1a-dependent glial differentiation and inhibits glioma stem-like cells proliferation by inducing autophagy in a TRPV2-dependent manner. International journal of cancer, 137(8), 1855–1869.

Yrjölä, S. et al (2015) Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of 1,3,5-triazines as cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists. European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 67, 85–96.

Wasik, A. M., & Sander, B. (2015). Cannabinoid receptors in mantle cell lymphoma. Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 14(3), 291–292.

Freund, P. et al (2016). Cannabinoid Receptors Are Overexpressed in CLL but of Limited Potential for Therapeutic Exploitation. PloS one, 11(6), e0156693.

Kampa-Schittenhelm, K. M. et al (2016). Dronabinol has preferential antileukemic activity in acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemia with lymphoid differentiation patterns. BMC cancer, 16, 25.

Castaneda, J.T. et al (2017). Regulation of Cell Surface CB2 Receptor during Human B Cell Activation and Differentiation. Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology : the official journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology, 12(3), 544–554.

Kalenderoglou, N., Macpherson, T., & Wright, K. L. (2017). Cannabidiol Reduces Leukemic Cell Size - But Is It Important?. Frontiers in pharmacology, Vol 8, pg. 144.

Scott, K. A., Dalgleish, A. G., & Liu, W. M. (2017). Anticancer effects of phytocannabinoids used with chemotherapy in leukaemia cells can be improved by altering the sequence of their administration. International journal of oncology, 51(1), 369–377.

Barbado, M.V. et al (2017). Cannabinoid derivatives exert a potent anti-myeloma activity both in vitro and in vivo International journal of cancer, 140(3), 674–685.

Zhang, Z. et al (2017). Inhibitory effect of trans-caryophyllene (TC) on leukocyte-endothelial attachment.Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 329, 326–333.

Chan, L.N. et al (2017). Metabolic gatekeeper function of B-lymphoid transcription factors. Nature, 542(7642), 479–483.

Capozzi, A. et al (2018). Anti-Proliferative Properties and Proapoptotic Function of New CB2 Selective Cannabinoid Receptor Agonist in Jurkat Leukemia Cells.International journal of molecular sciences, 19(7), 1958.

Sarid, N. et al (2018). Medical Cannabis Use by Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients: Experience of a Single Center. Acta haematologica, 140(4), 194–202.

Gholizadeh, F. et al (2019). Assessment of Cannabinoids Agonist and Antagonist in Invasion Potential of K562 Cancer Cells. Iranian biomedical journal, 23(2), 153–158

*Olivas-Aguirre, M. et al (2019). Cannabidiol directly targets mitochondria and disturbs calcium homeostasis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cell death & disease, 10(10), 779.

Meeran, M. et al (2019). β-Caryophyllene, a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene attenuates doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity via activation of myocardial cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptors in rats. Chemico-biological interactions, Vol. 304, Pp. 158–167.

Togano, T. et al (2019). The evaluation of Cannabidiol's effect on the immunotherapy of Burkitt lymphoma. Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 520(1), 225–230.

*Santoni, G., Amantini, C. et al (2020). The TRPV2 cation channels: from urothelial cancer invasiveness to glioblastoma multiforme interactome signature. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology, 100(2), 186–198.

Kampa-Schittenhelm, K. M. et al (2020). Epigenetic activation of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine transferase overrides the differentiation blockage in acute leukemia. EBioMedicine, 54, 102678.

Mazuz, M. et al (2020). Synergistic cytotoxic activity of cannabinoids from cannabis sativa against cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in-vitro and ex-vivo. Oncotarget, 11(13), 1141–1156.

Authors get paid when people like you upvote their post.
If you enjoyed what you read here, create your account today and start earning FREE STEEM!
STEEMKR.COM IS SPONSORED BY
ADVERTISEMENT
Sort Order:  trending