Elephantiasis / Kaki Gajah

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Elephantiasis or also called with filariasis bancrofti is a serious and dangerous disease which is characterized by swelling and thickening of the skin on the feet to resemble the elephant's legs, although it is actually not just the feet that swell. The disease is caused by a parasite named Wuchereria bancrofti. Generally, this parasite is widespread in areas with a tropical climate.


Kaki Gajah atau juga disebut dengan filariasis bancrofti merupakan penyakit serius dan berbahaya yang ditandai dengan pembengkakan dan penebalan kulit pada kaki hingga menyerupai kaki gajah, meskipun sebenarnya bukan hanya bagian kaki saja yang membengkak. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh parasit yang bernama Wuchereria bancrofti. Umumnya parasit ini tersebar luas pada daerah dengan iklim tropis.


The characteristic morphology of these parasites, the worms of males and females living in the ducts and lymph gland with the shape of the delicate thread-like and color is white like milk. Microfilariae can live in the blood and at certain times there are in the blood stream. Generally, Wuchereria bancrofti is the periodicity of nokturna, i.e. microfilariae its only found in the blood stream edges at night time only, he said we could feel the microfilariae is moving at night. While during the day, be in the capillaries of the tool in such as the heart, lungs and kidneys.


Ciri morfologi parasit ini yaitu, cacing jantan dan betina hidup di saluran dan kelenjar limfa dengan bentuk yang halus seperti benang dan warnanya putih seperti susu. Mikrofilaria ini dapat hidup di dalam darah dan pada waktu-waktu tertentu terdapat di aliran darah. Umumnya, Wuchereria bancrofti bersifat periodisitas nokturna, yaitu mikrofilarianya hanya terdapat di dalam aliran darah tepi pada waktu malam saja, katanya kita bisa merasakan mikrofilaria ini bergerak-gerak saat malam hari. Sedangkan pada siang hari, berada di kapiler alat dalam seperti jantung, paru dan ginjal.


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This parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes. In urban areas, transmitted by mosquitoes Culex quinquefasciatus, while in the country transmitted by mosquitoes Anopheles or Aedes, and this parasite is not transmitted by mosquitoes Mansonia.


Parasit ini ditularkan oleh nyamuk. Pada daerah perkotaan, ditularkan oleh nyamuk Culex quinquefasciatus, sedangkan di pedesaan ditularkan oleh nyamuk Anopheles ataupun Aedes, dan parasit ini tidak ditularkan oleh nyamuk Mansonia.


The life cycle of this parasite is very long. Initially, the microfilariae are sucked or been sucked by mosquitoes at night. Then develops inside the body of the mosquito for approximately two weeks from the larvae of stage I until the larvae stage III. Then when the mosquito containing the larvae of stage III bites a human, the larvae will move into the human body through puncture wounds, nested in the ducts of lymph local. Its growth in the human body approximately for seven months, experiencing two times the turn of the skin, and grow into the larvae stage IV and stage V (mature worms). Worms filariasis can survive up to 10 years in the lymph glands and produce the millions of children worms that can cause swelling and thickening of the skin.


Daur hidup parasit ini sangatlah panjang. Awalnya, mikrofilaria dihisap ataupun terhisap oleh nyamuk saat malam hari. Kemudian berkembang di dalam tubuh nyamuk kurang lebih selama dua minggu dari larva stadium I sampai larva stadium III. Lalu saat nyamuk yang mengandung larva stadium III menggigit manusia, maka larva tersebut akan berpindah ke tubuh manusia melalui luka tusuk, bersarang di saluran limfa setempat. Pertumbuhannya di dalam tubuh manusia kurang lebih selama tujuh bulan, mengalami dua kali pergantian kulit, dan tumbuh menjadi larva stadium IV dan stadium V (cacing dewasa). Cacing filariasis dapat bertahan hingga 10 tahun di dalam kelenjar limfa dan menghasilkan berjuta-juta anak cacing yang dapat menyebabkan pembengkakan dan penebalan kulit.


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The course of the disease filariasis can be divided into several stages, namely:


Perjalanan penyakit filariasis dapat dibagi menjadi beberapa tahap, yaitu:


a. Stage mikrofilaremia without clinical symptoms which, if carried out examination can reveal damage to the ducts of lymph. Adult worms that live can clog the lymph, and if the polynomial can lead to dysfunction of the lymphatic system. While the adult worms are dead can cause an inflammatory reaction.


a. Stadium mikrofilaremia tanpa gejala klinis yang apabila dilakukan pemeriksaan dapat memperlihatkan kerusakan saluran limfa. Cacing dewasa yang hidup dapat menyumbat saluran limfa dan jika jumlahnya banyak dapat menyebabkan disfungsi sistem limfatik. Sedangkan cacing dewasa yang mati dapat menyebabkan reaksi inflamasi.


b. Acute stage, which is characterized by inflammation of the duct and lymph gland accompanied by fever. Symptoms of inflammation can go away and come several times a year. If the inflammation occurs in the lymphatic system of the male genitalia, can cause sperm ducts become inflamed, swollen and also very painful.


b. Stadium akut, yang ditandai dengan peradangan pada saluran dan kelenjar limfa yang disertai dengan demam. Gejala peradangan dapat hilang timbul beberapa kali dalam setahun. Jika peradangan terjadi pada sistem limfatik alat kelamin laki-laki, dapat menyebabkan saluran sperma meradang, membengkak dan juga sangat nyeri.


c. Stage chronic, can be found symptoms of lymphedema and elefantiasis (start swelling and thickening), which attack the entire of the limbs, arms, breasts and vulva in women, also of the testicles in males. Sometimes can be found in the urine of milk-white that occurs due to dilatation of the lymph vessels.


c. Stadium menahun, dapat dijumpai gejala limfedema dan elefantiasis (mulai terjadi pembengkakan dan penebalan) yang menyerang seluruh tungkai, lengan, payudara dan vulva pada wanita, juga testis pada laki-laki. Terkadang dapat ditemui urin berwarna putih susu yang terjadi karena dilatasi pada pembuluh limfa.


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The Diagnosis of this disease can be done with a diagnosis of parasitology, namely the detection of the parasite by finding microfilariae in the blood by taking blood at night. Can also be done with Radiodiagnosis, namely the examination via ultrasonography (USG) on the scrotum and lymph nodes. Moreover, it can also do examinations with a diagnosis of immunology, namely the detection of antigen immunochromatographic test (ICT), by using monoclonal antibodies that have been developed to detect antigen Wuchereria bancrofti in the blood circulation.


Diagnosis penyakit ini dapat dilakukan dengan diagnosis parasitologi, yaitu deteksi parasit dengan menemukan mikrofilaria di dalam darah dengan pengambilan darah pada malam hari. Dapat juga dilakukan dengan Radiodiagnosis, yaitu pemeriksaan melalui ultrasonografi (USG) pada skrotum dan kelenjar getah bening. Selain itu dapat juga dilakukan pemeriksaan dengan diagnosis imunologi, yaitu deteksi antigen dengan immunochromatographic test (ICT), dengan menggunakan antibodi monoklonal yang telah dikembangkan untuk mendeteksi antigen Wuchereria bancrofti dalam sirkulasi darah.


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Treatment can be carried out with the use of the drug dietilkarbamasin citric acid (DEC), which is killing the microfilariae and also the adult worms in the long-term treatment. DEC has been used for more than 40 years, is also effective and safe . For its dosage, it is recommended to take this medication as much as 6 mg/kg body weight/day for 12 days. Daily dose can be given 3x after meal. In general with this dose can eliminate the microfilariae, but to completely healed and free from his illness required several times of treatment.

To prevent this disease can be done by conducting mosquito eradication and implement a healthy lifestyle. However, prevention is better than cure. If already infected, is not only suffering because of the pain, but will also suffer because of the shame. The process of treatment long course also makes us tired. Therefore make it a habit is a healthy lifestyle in order to create also a healthy generation.


Pengobatan dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan obat dietilkarbamasin sitrat (DEC), yang bersifat membunuh mikrofilaria dan juga cacing dewasa pada pengobatan jangka panjang. DEC telah digunakan lebih dari 40 tahun, juga efektif dan aman . Untuk dosis nya, dianjurkan untuk meminum obat ini sebanyak 6 mg/kg berat badan/hari selama 12 hari. Dosis hariannya dapat diberikan 3x pemberian setelah makan. Pada umumnya dengan dosis ini dapat menghilangkan mikrofilaria, tetapi untuk benar-benar sembuh dan bebas dari penyakitnya diperlukan beberapa kali pengobatan.
Untuk mencegah penyakit ini dapat dilakukan dengan melakukan pemberantasan sarang nyamuk dan menerapkan pola hidup sehat. Bagaimanapun, mencegah lebih baik daripada mengobati. Jika sudah terinfeksi, bukan hanya menderita karena sakit, tetapi juga akan menderita karena malu. Proses pengobatan yang lama tentunya juga membuat kita lelah. Maka dari itu biasakan lah pola hidup yang sehat agar tercipta juga generasi yang sehat.


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This post would have been very educating and also reach a wider coverage if it had an English translation.

Would you please be kind enough to include an English translation. Google translator wouldn't be a bad idea please.

I am following you to know when you do.

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Thanks for the advice, very meaningful to me. I will try it.

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Thank you.

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