ADSactly Art History - The Further Development of Hellenistic Art: Architecture, Urban Planning, Philosophy and Religion

2년 전

The Further Development of Hellenistic Art: Architecture, Urban Planning, Philosophy and Religion

The interest in Greek art does not diminish, because this art plays a significant role in the birth of European art and is still a reference point for reflections on beauty…

New cities are arranged according to a rectangular plan - just like the fifth-century Piraeus. Examples are Priene and Pergamum - Hellenistic cities. Streets were designed wider, with care for sanitary installations and water availability. Agora is surrounded by porticoes for comfort and shade. Similarly designed are the palestrae, to which gymnasiums adjoin. On broader streets, one-story, windowless houses with a courtyard and tenement houses were built.

The Ionic order prevails, and the remaining Doric temples are characterized by slenderness and lightness. The triglyphs in friezes are not being built anymore and the Doric order can be seen only in the West of the country and in secular architecture.

While the urban layout was based on a classic checkerboard layout, the cities were unprecedented in their scale. An example would be Antioch or Alexandria, gathering communities of over 100,000 people. (Papuci-Władyka, 2001: 355)
The model from the classical times provided the cities with appropriate districts: sacral, residential, green, or administrative (Papuci-Władyka, 2001: 277-8). Hellenistic novelty (associated with the rebirth of the monarchy) was the introduction to the urban order of the palaces. Monumental palace complexes are best represented by Pergamum, the capital of the Hellenistic state located in the western part of Asia, ruled by the Attalid dynasty. The mansion in Pergamum attracted sculptors and painters, architects and writers, growing into one of the cultural centers at a time when the Hellenistic political system had already disintegrated (Stewart, 1990: 209).

The new orders limited the construction of temples, partly because the adaptation of existing sacred buildings was undertaken (Papuci-Władyka, 2001: 278). It must be remembered, however, that the Hellenistic period is also characterized by a tendency to interest people in their own affairs and reverse from classical spirituality. The architects made attempts to modernize the Doric and Ionian orders and their mixed forms - by changing the proportion, slender columns and blocks.

One should note the increase in the popularity of ornament and embellishments in a purely aesthetic role. In contrast to classical architecture, the semi-columns adjacent to the walls no longer served the construction of the building but instead supported its composition. The Temple of Athena in Tegea on the Peloponnese, by the sculptor Scopas, is equipped with a convex stylobate, gently sloping columns, which are up to six times the base of the drum. Equipped with a triple row of columns with mixed architectural orders. The Temple of Athena in Priene, of exceptional quality, is an example of permeating the Doric order to Asia Minor. Pyteos established a canon of proportions based on the Ionian foot (29.4 cm).

Architecture for the theater in the 4th century BC takes on a more monumental form. Examples of theaters of that period are the theater of Dionysus at the Acropolis, the theater in Delphi, Megalopolis, and above all, the perfectly preserved theater at Epidaurus - a sanctuary healing in Argolis on the Saronic Gulf. Its authorship is attributed to Polykleitos the younger and it is a model for later implementations, including in Megalopolis. Pausanias considered this theater to be the largest in Greece and famous for Asclepieia, being held there every four years. The auditorium of the theater is a phenomenon of sound, studied to this day due to the excellent sound distribution to all parts of the audience.

The period of the 4th century expansion also brought rapid development of science. Slowly abandoning a worldview based on mythology and focusing on researching what is real, has led to questions and undermining existing beliefs about the origin of the world. The center of contemporary science was located in Egyptian Alexandria.

Placed there the largest library of the then world and Mouseion, a science complex, was the focus of new scientific fields: medicine (Hippocrates), mathematics (Euclid), or modern physics (Archimedes) (Bernhard, 1992: 258). Artistic work has also received an adequate science which described the knowledge about art: aesthetics (Aristotle).
Two streams of Greek thought, in particular, exemplify these new trends, including the strengthening of individualism, foreign in the older history of Greece. The Stoics began to reflect on the ethical condition of man, and the development of his personality was associated with his individual ability to understand the world. Meanwhile, the students of Epicurus (341-270 BC) propagated the right to individual happiness, enjoying the carefree life. Cynics, on the other hand, promoted the release of a man from all social obligations (Ałpatow, 1961: 148).

The processes described above have contributed to the growing individualism. Classical art focused on presenting the rules governing the Cosmos. The present artists now perceived a fragment of reality, mixed up species and concepts, and interested in the details presented less sublime contents: secondary deities endowed with purely human attributes.

The sepulchral architecture of the IV century BC did not include the monumental tombs, which were rather appropriate to the areas of Asia Minor, where the influence of Greek artists was more and more visible. The tombstones were rich in ornaments and examples of such buildings are those in Lycia in south-west Asia Minor and the Nereid monument.

Mausoleum in Halicarnassus is the most unique example of tomb construction, concealing the tombs of Mausolus, the Persian ruler of Caria.
The mausoleum owes a very rich sculptural decor to sculptors such as Scopas, Timotheus, Leochares and Bryaksis, who were responsible for creating the decorations of respectively eastern, southern, western and northern walls of the building. The colossal size of the tomb required leveling the rock on a surface of 36 by 38 meters.
The sculptures of the mausoleum depict the Amazonomachy, the Centauromachy and cart races, and present an unusual sculptural artistry.

In sculpting art, as mentioned before, the most significant influence of the 4th century BC is the introduction of expression of emotional states and emotions, and the departure from the pathos proper to age V. The ideas were personified in an abstract way, an example of which is Eirene with Pluto (personification of Peace and Wealth) set in the Agora of Athens after the battle of Leuctra. This statue expressed a longing for the social order of Athens.
The attention of late-classical sculpture researchers focuses on the most prominent authors of that period: Praxiteles (Hermes with a small Dionysus, Cnidus Aphrodite), Scopas (Mausoleum in Halicarnassus, the temple of Athena Alea in Tegea) and Lisyppos - the precursor of Hellenism.
Praxiteles’ Aphrodite of Cnidus is a naked goddess - attribute to the 4th century BC symbolizing the Heroes of the Games. Nudity here indicates the innocence of the goddess, for her unspotted femininity.

Classical idealism confronted the decorativeness of the eastern Greek cities of the 4th century, and from there came to Greece a tendency to increased plasticity of sculptural performances.
The gods lost their "divinity", and thus they were equipped with typically human neuroses, defects. What's more, the spiritual content of works of art became more shallow. Praxiteles’ Hermes and Dionysus present​ God when he stops on the path, accompanied by the little Dionysus entrusted to him by gods to take care of. Other than it was appropriate for classical art, the group is free from deeper spiritual content: Hermes entertains the child, instead of acting as his teacher. The spiritual greatness of God is ignored and human qualities are emphasized. Little Dionysus, in greed, draws out his hands, which can be read as an association with his later image as a god of wine. (Stewart, 1991: 175)

Classical frugality of forms had a source in sublimity and expressed itself in a clear construction and expressive contours. Meanwhile, works from the Hellenistic period are characterized by vivacious dynamics, focus on the play of light.

Authored by @highonthehog


Images: sources linked below
Photo: @highonthehog

  • Papuci-Władyka, E., Sztuka starożytnej grecji, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN SA, Warszawa, 2001
  • Stewart, A., Greek Sculpture: An Exploration, Volume I: Text, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1991
  • Bernhard, M. L., Sztuka grecka IV w. p.n.e., Wydawnictwa Artystyczne i Filmowe, Warszawa 1992
  • Alpatow, M., Historia sztuki 1, Starożytność, Wydawnictwo Arkady, Warszawa, 1968

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I like reading about the history of ancient Greece. I know that it was at that time that the real art in philosophy and architecture was born. The architectural structures of ancient Greece deserve special attention. The first is blackened because the architecture of ancient Greece laid the foundation for European architecture. I read that it was used by architects from all over the world. She definitely left her mark on the outcome and had an impact. Even now, the buildings that are made in this style attract a lot of attention.

If you take into account the sculptural art - then it is one of the most beautiful in the world. Many people have seen Greek sculptures at least once in their life (on television or elsewhere). They are recognized as one of the greatest achievements of the culture of antiquity that have left their mark on world history. Now their sculptures can rightfully be called a "classics" of art.

Thank you, I liked it


Sorry about that bud, misunderstanding on my part.


no problem man


Hey I don't know what to believe anymore, so many people have copied comments... XD

Anyway thanks for dropping by and taking the time to point out the losers​...


I absolutely love the architecture of ancient Greece and you can definitely see it's influence throughout the world. Really great stuff.

A debt of gratitude is in order for awesome composed and extremely educative post @adsactly. I cherish perusing about history and Greeks resembled the principle folks there :). Simply investigating and seeing their engineering is more than stunning to me. The performance centers are structures I appreciate the most, the shape and the inclination when I see it is so exceptional to me. It generally make them consider what occurred there and how it felt.

Unfortunatelly, library in Alexandria was singed, and that is the one of the saddest crossroads ever. To lose such a great amount of information from which we can find out about additional. That is extremely a thing that disheartens me a considerable measure.

There are numerous styles in arhitecture of the history and greek is only one of numerous that inspires everybody. They were experts in this as should be obvious it from the craftsmanship they made.

Much obliged again to share educative posts, I figure individuals can take in a ton just by understanding them. I trust it will push them to be more inquisitive and to look for more answers later on!


on my part, a long thank you for the extraordinary comment.
I have a similar opinion about the Alexandrian library, it would be a huge treasure for the present world, to have but a fraction of that knowledge that was stored in it. Oh, how would our horizons widen. Perhaps what I am​ writing about today would not just be a curiosity, buried in time.

A very readable, informative overview of Greek culture and its influence on other cultures. I remember pouring over Plutarch's "Lives" in high school (not assigned- I had odd reading habits). I was convinced everything he said was historically accurate. Of course, over the years I came to realize that not just Plutarch, but all sources have to be regarded critically. Still, that book influenced me and contributed to my lifelong interest in history. Your map is fascinating, in that many of the place names have endured in some form. Although, "Iberia" did puzzle me, enough to prompt investigation. It seems I'm not the only one to be puzzled--people of the Caucasus have also given the matter some thought and looked for a connectionbetween their ancient kingdom and the Iberian peninsula. Very enjoyable piece, especially for a fan of history.


Thanks for reading, just one small question where did you find Iberia in my post, or am I missing something?

Hippocrates, Euclid, Archimedes were born in the time where individualism was blooming. They were more aware how everything in space time continuum is connected and that we should act as part of nature. Individualism doesn't mean separation from each other, it means investing to use full potential of us as humans.

The infrastructure is also made in that way, as per divine proportion. Even if so many people don't know that fact, they cannot resist to admire the structures. As our inner self knows better what is made in a line with the nature, and that automatically means beauty as proportion in nature is beauty. You must have heard about Fibonachi sequence (1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, ect) All things in nature are made from this sequence.

Aristotle is one of fathers of Greek philosophy. He was the youngest among tree fathers. Socrates famous quote "I know that I don't know anything" will be eternal truth, as we are growing spiritually we are aware that we are part of something we don't have idea about and only if we keep open mind we will be able to get at least few percentage of worlds knowledge and wisdom. Plato was speaking about how one country should operate in the best possible way and I am recommending that for e"Republic" to read.

Hopefully, all of us will again turn back to ourselves and invest in ourselves first to benefit personally us and society as whole.


Thanks for great written and very educative post @adsactly. I love reading about history and Greeks were like the main guys there :). Just researching and seeing their architecture is more than jaw-dropping to me. The theatres are buildings I enjoy the most, the shape and the feeling when I see it is so special to me. It always get me thinking about what happened there and how it felt.

Unfortunatelly, library in Alexandria was burned, and that's the one of the saddest moment in history. To lose so much knowledge from which we can learn about more. That's really a thing that saddens me a lot.

There are many styles in arhitecture of the history and greek is just one of many that impresses everyone. They were professionals in this as you can see it from the art they made.

Thanks again for sharing educative posts, I think people can learn a lot just by reading them. I hope it will push them to be more curious and to seek more answers in the future!


wow , so cool to see so many absolutely identical comments :) check this out!


Good morning friend. Pls I need u to read my post and upvote it. Am fairly new one steemit and need ur upvote as a means of encouragement. Thanks


My friend, please do not ask for upvotes. This is considered as a spam.

On Steemit, you need to build natural relationship with fellow human beings. By that I mean, find people that you like and try to engage in normal conversations, not vote-for-vote kind of talk.

This kind of behavior is not acceptable on Steemit, nor in ADSactly society. Have a great day, and please don't do this again ;) <3


Good job. :)

  ·  2년 전

Hmm... Very interesting stuff!...:)...


Indeed, I'm happy to write about stuff that is interesting not only to myself XD

Hi, we have voted on your post because you have posted your article to either food, recipe, recipes, cooking or steemkitchen #tag. Steemkitchen is a brand new initiative where we want to build a community/guild focused purely on the foodie followers and lovers of the steem blockchain. Steemkitchen is in the conceptual phase and we would love to hear your thoughts and ideas.

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yyyyhm , nope , unfortunately there is no match , try again XD


Stupid bot... wonder why it did that. No food even close to this post. Enjoy the upvote


Figured it out, the steemkichen account follows adsactly, sry for the intrusion


heh no worries, thanks. :)


Good job my friend...... best of luck.


Please don't

One weird fact about Alexander is;
When he reached India, his companions started killing Indian monkeys. They had heard indian people are vary different in colour and small in size!!!!
They wasted two months killing wrong species in indian, same expedition of ALEXANDER THE GREAT became last one for him during return He died in the because of some reason, related are many theories.
Another fact is he when started his expansion to India every prince of that period yealded before him except the PORUS. PORUS lost the war and after that Alexander asked him, you are brave man. What should you want to have, as last wish. He told him restore my position. Alexander made him the governor of same province and ordered him rule in his name.
There are so many stories about Alexander the great and in expansion to India but don't know how many of them are true and which are false.
One thing that everybody believes is true is the Greco-Roman art that is existing still in India.


hmmm , how crazy is this, I guess this was a good protection for the Indian people.


I think better way to discribe was a communication barriers between the European and South Asian people, after Alexander the silk rout started, nowadays is reconstructed by China and allies as OBOR.

A great read! Alexander had some very progressive and includisive ideals and if he had had a son like his father had, history would very different! There was such chaos after his death that lead to the break up of the empire and animosity between the individual rulers of the different territories that the strides that had been made became unsustainable in favor of power grabbing. Great stuff, keep them coming!


That is right, I have some stories about it on my profile, thanks for your comment.

Great history. "A Twisted Love: One Night Stand to the Grave" specially name of this history was excellent . Seeing this name anyone will feel interest to read this history . Thank @adsactly for sharing this history with us.....


not this post

Yeah, Alexandar is a great ruler in his time period and rules the whole world with his military mind he such a power and brilliant leader. He rules the whole world with great planning and power hungry and diplomatic. One thing I like the horse battle mostly he used in his life. Greek has great history that grabs the attention of anybody. I'm a hobbyist of history whenever I have time I visit also such historic places. Its always grabs my attention and increase the interest of me and took into the past. This article show one of the best acient times and the moments. I personally feels history means a lot!


Hi, thanks for dropping by. I hope this post will make you want to see all these places, if you have not yet had the opportunity, it's worth it!

  ·  2년 전

Eski yaşamlat eski eşyalat her türlü geçmişi görmek ve anlamak isterim. Bu paylaşım için teşekkürler

Wow wonderful photography... I appreciate your art..i like art... life history post.....includisive ideals and if he had had a son like his father had.....history would very different! There was such chaos after his death that lead to the break up of the empire and animosity between the individual rulers of the different territories that the strides that had been made became unsustainable in favor of power grabbing. Great stuff......keep them coming.....
Thanks for sharing... best of luck....


thanks for copying and pasting other people comments,​ sad.

Your post is very hopefull
good job boss @adsactly


glad to give you some hope xd

Well to be perfectly honest, in my humble opinion, of course without offending. anyone who thinks differently from my point of view, but also by looking into this matter in a different perspective and without being condemning of one's view's and by trying to make it objectified, and by considering each and every one's valid opinion, I honestly believe that I completely forgot what I was going to say.


good one ;)

Thank you for your share a awesome historical article.

every single photo is really greatful sir @adsactly


glad you took so much time writing this comment ;)

Nice Article... Thank you for this.
If possible please up-vote my comment. Thanks again.

Loved the post! Do you happen to know how the Romans and Greek architecture connects to one another, and also how this architecture is seen in modern developments?


Good comment man. carry on


indeed , check out my profile XD

Thank's @adsactly
It very amazing art and the important to know well about many kind of all.

Always success for you and we win together


thanks for dropping by and commenting.

Your art is very amazing

Your post is always different i follow your blog everytime , your post is so helpful . I always inspire of your post on my steem work . Thank you for sharing @adsactly

Follow my blog @powerupme

@adsactly very informative post. I am great fan of Greek art and it is real pleasure to ready anything about Greek art. Thanks for posting


Thanks for your kind words, there will be more where this came from.

The history books let us to know the best of our culture and traditions and as we follow the trend it revealed the future. Thanks @adsactly for sharing this insightful information


we must also know which historical books to read and which not to. thanks for the ​comment.

Really good post i love the post i am following all post i like the hoitory thanks for sharing


Thank you.

Everyone, you respecting himself or herself pays a thought and detail study in ancient Greek history because it's a source of wisdom and inspiration. Thus, in human history during the centuries the ideas of ancient Greek regenerate human civilization, who is built on its ancient Greek foundations.

The Hellenistic period is a period that has been created after the campaign of Alexander the Great and the dissemination of the Greek language and Greek culture, incorporating the peculiarities of the cultures with which it came into contact. This contact also resulted in the formation of a new form of civilization, known as Hellenistic civilization.

Hellenistic art was characterized by its attention to detail and placed emphasis on naturalism. Artists began to create figures which realistically depicted the human physique and facial features. Artists during the era did not limit themselves to depicting physical characteristics; they were known to strive hard to display the inner feelings and emotions of the subject in their work. The statue of Laocoön and His Sons also called the Laocoön Group is the most representative stute of the period.

During the Hellenistic period in Korinthos, a new rhythm was created in order to decorate the new temples of the Hellenistic empire. The temple of Pergamus is the more famous temple from the Hellenestic period.

The paintings and mosaics of the Hellenistic have started to represent day life and include the nature characteristics.

All the above were created under Alexander the Great influence, even after his death.Extremely didactic is the oath given by Alexander the Great, in front of his soldiers-compatriots, in the summer of 324 BC. in the city of OPI:

  1. I wish you now that the wars have ended up being happy with peace.
  2. All mortals from now on, to live as a people united.
  3. Respect Your Hometown with common laws where the excellent, independent tribes will rule.
  4. I do not distinguish people, as the headaches do to Greeks and barbarians.
    5.I do not care about the origin of the people, nor the breed born. I attribute them only one criterion. Virtue.
  5. For me every good foreigner is a Greek and every bad Greek is worse than a barbarian.
  6. If you ever have any differences, you will never resort to weapons, rather than solve them peacefully.
  7. God should not think of him as an authoritarian ruler, but as a common father of all, so that the behavior seems to resemble a life that the brothers make to the family.
  8. For my part, I consider you ISSUES whites or whites and I would like you not only to be ordinary Commonwealth nationals but all shareholders, all partners.
  9. As it passes by my hand, I will try to make what I promise.
  10. The oath we gave with the bride tonight, keep it as a contract, Love.

Let all of us take a small piece of Knowledge and wisdom of Alexander's the Great last wishes just before his death.


Being on the brink of death, Alexander the Great summoned his generals and communicated to them his last three wishes.
1.To carry his coffin on the shoulders by the best doctors of the time.

  1. The treasures he had acquired (silver, gold, precious stones) to scatter them all the way to his grave.
    3.Hands of his left to rock in the air, out of the coffin, overlooking all.
    One of his generals surprised by unusual desires, asked Alexander, what were the reasons. Alexander explained to him.
  2. I want the most prominent doctors to pick up my coffin so they can show that neither they have the power to heal in the face of death.
  3. I want the ground to be covered by my treasures, so that everyone can see that the goods we get here are here.
  4. I want my hands to float in the air, so that people can see that we come with our hands empty and with our hands empty we leave, when the most precious treasure, which is the time, is over for us.

So, my dear friend feel free to take your ancient ship ''argo'' and make your journey to the awesome ancient Greek history.

Photos ware taken from

good !!

Congratulations @adsactly!
Your post was mentioned in the Steemit Hit Parade in the following category:

  • Upvotes - Ranked 10 with 618 upvotes

Your post is very good!

Now look me in the eye and Follow Me @cryptopay-blogYour post is very good

thank you nice post. follow you blog. and vote.


thank you.

Life is very difficult
There is a good way to live in life.
Everyone needs to be benefited.
And we need to give something better to write something like this.
Your writing has become very beautiful.
I am your friend
Will you be my friend?

.. I have friends reading in engineering program Architecture and Urban plan..
Old days architectures creativity was neutral. So their work sill people follow...
Awsome.this kind of topic is really amazing also your art


Thank you for reading my post.

I love everything about your post, I just read everything it's cool and I love them all you have supported us with quality content I love to see more from you and good things thank you sir


Awesome, thanks for writing a ​quality comment! SIR

Great post! I didn't know that old civilization uses patterns to put their house somewhere.


old civilisation does xD

Totally agree with this post...Help and support each other and the world as a whole--a better place...
creative job @adsactly , thank you for sharing.


hehe you almost got the topic right ;)

Thanks for sharing valuable post..
I appreciate your life


wow really !!!!

Writing about such a beautiful history is very rare. As far as I've read, I was surprised. The picture is amazing all the way. History is coming out in front of the eye.

Amazing art . thanks for share a great historical article.


Hello adsactly, pls could you upvote the two wonderful piece I wrote yesterday. I am fairly new one steemit and learning how it works here. Thanks


well it doesn't work like that

Beautiful essay!

So many times, Greek architecture and sculpture is presented in such a monolithic way. You have done the polar opposite here, displaying poignantly the changeability and variation.

Have you found great (or greater) variation between city states as we move forward in time, or did you witness a tendency for a Greek artistic unification taking place?


(Upvoting and following now..)

  ·  2년 전

Im a artist as well. But i'm not European HAHA.


best of luck.

thank you for your good posting


Thank you for reading.

This is so beautiful and informative, nice post! By the way, I draw too you can see my blog if you want. Good vibes <3

Nice work. I am glad to see that there are posts in the Steemit universe about the ancient world which have some substance and cover something other than war.


:) glad that you like it , thanks for the comment, cheers!

Its cool!

follow me and i will follow you!


I couldn't agree more. Great article!

Great post... I am currently interested in ancient Rome, so reading abut Greece is absolutely fundamental :D

with time in history, the strength of the middle class increased. This was due to the growth of progress. People became more demanding and smarter. Therefore, the hunters need to follow the trend and create more value in order to meet the requirements of the middle class.

Nevertheless, I have reason to believe that a low class in society exists to intimidate the middle class. Thus, people from the middle class will continue to work and bring value to themselves and to people from the vigilant class.

I agree that many things have changed after the industrial revolution. The obfuscation of the trend and the requirements for work have changed. Many professions lost their relevance. At the same time there were other proffessions.

Here where I live is accepted to appreciate things that were produced in the Soviet Union. Why? Just because these things serve to the present day. Yes, exactly then the production created things and mechanisms that were calculated for a long period of work. Now the whole world has changed. Now the priority is money. And chtotneobhodimo that would make money? The answer is simple - sell more often. And what to sell more often - it is necessary that people need these things. Therefore, such a phenomenon as a programmed lifetime became relevant. You buy a thing and with a certain time period it comes out of standing. After that you have to buy this thing. You carry your money back. I do not support such a system.
A good topic for discussion. Thanks, I liked it...bestof luck
@upvote and resteemit


you're the fourth! Hooray! the record is set :) where is my medal?


In stead of upvote and resteemit, how about an nice flag for copy/paste comment.


xD omg this is nuts the day of copy paste comments

A very readable, informative overview of Greek culture and its influence on other cultures. I remember pouring over Plutarch's "Lives" in high school (not assigned- I had odd reading habits). I was convinced everything he said was historically accurate. Of course, over the years I came to realize that not just Plutarch, but all sources have to be regarded critically. Still, that book influenced me and contributed to my lifelong interest in history. Your map is fascinating, in that many of the place names have endured in some form. Although, "Iberia" did puzzle me, enough to prompt investigation. It seems I'm not the only one to be puzzled--people of the Caucasus have also given the matter some thought and looked for a connectionbetween their ancient kingdom and the Iberian peninsula. Very enjoyable piece, especially for a fan of history... best of luck my dear friend @adsactly...upvote and resteemit done.


Did you really think that copy and pasting another's comment would work? Really?