Input reading 3
Lesson evaluation
Warming up discussion 3.1
Make up a list of qualities that a lesson observer needs to make the observation and reflection on the results of the observation more successful

There are at least three maxims of lesson observation that make the process more effective: attention, nonjudgment, empathy. Attention means that a visitor is attentive to every detail of what is going on during the lesson. Nonjudgment means that a visitor provides a mirroring reflection on the lesson without labeling the procedures as either “good” or “bad”. E.g. “If I’ve got it right, you’ve spent 30 minutes on explaining the grammar rule and the remaining 10 minutes were given to the analysis of examples…”. Empathy implies that a visitor is prepared to understand all the “coral reefs” of the lesson and to side fully with the teacher whose lesson is being observed.
Exploratory task 3.1
List possible foci of observation in the lesson and disclose the purpose in each case
Focus 
Purpose 


Lesson evaluation is done according to observation criteria. The criteria can be given in the form of propositions: “The class seemed to be learning the material well”, “The learners were engaging with the tasks throughout the lesson”, “The learners were attentive all the time”, “The learners were interested and motivated”, “The learners were active all the time”, “The lesson went according to a plan”, “The language was used communicatively throughout the lesson” (Ur, P. 1996. A Course in English Language Teaching. CUP. P. 230).
Observation can be done on the teacher, method and learner. Observing a teacher, the observer can concentrate on the following items “Maintains interest”, “Stimulates activity”, “Speaks audibly”, “Looks at the learners”, “Structures the material clearly”, “Gives explanations”, “Clarifies the goals”, “Advises on learning strategy”, “Encourages the learners” (After Woodward, T. 1995. Ways of Training. Longman. P. 35).
In observing the method of instruction the framework of observation will be different. The observers can concentrate on “Communicative activities”, “Interactive activities”, “Challenging activities”, “Comprehensible material”, “Motivating material”, “Logical sequence of activities”, “Developing communicative skills”, “Developing language competence”, “Reinforcing the knowledge”.
In observing the learner the observation format changes and can include the following: “Understand the task”, “Familiar with the task format” (obviously have experience in performing similar tasks), “Have a good command of previously learned knowledge”, “Give a prompt response to the teacher”, “Cooperate with the teacher”, “Cooperate with each other”, “Attentive”, “Involved in the lesson procedures”.
Exploratory task 3.2
Observe a video recording of a lesson and complete the grid below
Items 
Planning 
Implementing 
Evaluation 




















Observation format is the form into which the observation results are arranged:
Bull's eye (Every arrow corresponds to a criteria of observation. The more the criteria are met in the lesson the closer will the arrow move towards the centre of the “bull’s eye”.
Grid (Every box in the grid contains a criterion of observation. An observer writes comments in each box making explicit the goals of the lesson, the way the class was managed and the degree to which the targets were achieved)
Clarity of goals

Management of class 
Achievement of targets 
Learner interaction

Teacher role 
Learner involvement 
Questionnaire (In the process of observation the observer answers the questions of the questionnaire that has been previously compiled)
Questions 
Answers 


Graph. The graph shows how the attention of the learners was changing during the lesson time.
Degree of the feature under observation
Learner active involvement during the lesson
Lesson time
A list (The observer ticks off the items that were dominant in the lesson)
The Items of Observation During the Lesson 



Observation web (Each section of the circle corresponds to a criteria of observation. Every 35 minutes a stroke is drawn in the corresponding sections. By the end of the lesson the “web” shows which criteria have been met most fully during the lesson)
Diary of the lesson (The observer marks the time of the lesson and carefully describes the observed procedures with comments)
Time 
Procedure 
Comment 

Time measurement in the lesson (The observer concentrates on the lesson features that can be measured in time)
Items of measurement 
Quantity 


Balanced report (The observer gives carefully balanced opinions on the lesson emphasising strong and disputable points)
Strong points of the lesson 
Disputable points of the lesson 


Theoretical analysis (The observer analyses the approach, method and techniques of teaching)

Lesson iceberg (The observer analyzes the “tip of the iceberg” i.e. the techniques demonstrated by the teachers. The next is the “underwater part” i.e. the possible dangers and “coral reefs” that make the teacher maneuver. The “deep water part” is the area of “no life”, which the teacher tries not to enter and not to do the teaching in this way).
Tip of iceberg
Underwater level
Deep level
Observation task
Choose an observation framework and format to observer a lesson episode or a microteaching activity. After the observation share your results with the “observed” teacher and both complete the chart below to evaluate the observation framework that you used (tick off the items with if “Yes”):
Reflections of the observer 
Reflections of the observed 


Microteaching
Teaching a lesson of your choice and reflect on it by ticking off statements about your own lesson if “Yes”. Compare your statements with those of your observers.
Statements about your own lesson 



















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