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dignities of civic life-genre interiors, landscapes, and portraits suggesting
an inner life and Outer rectitude. Kings, princes and aristocrats would still pay
for the celebration of their glories and depiction of their wealth. Yet there
were als0 signs of artists finding an overtly personal significance in their
art-in the late works of Rembrandt (1606-69) or in the extremist manner
of Carava8gio (1571-1610).
In the 18th and 19th centuries Europe developed a consciousness of
its artistic history, seen as a succession of masterpieces that were prized
as jewels of culture and exhibited in galleries for the spiritual and moral
edification of the public. The worship of 'great masters' of the past led
contemporary painters to aspire to emulate them. The age of patronage and
cOurt painters was slow to fade-Napoleon employed his artists to celebrate
imperial glory and Francisco de Goya (1746-1828) was a Spanish court
painter-but increasingly artists were expected to pursue their own vision.
AS European society developed in the direction of maximized production,
mechanization, utilitarianism and rationalism, European art developed in

the direction of Romanticism-a complex cultural movement with a clear
bias for nature against society and the machine, emotion against reason,
and the inspired artist against the philistinism of boureenis society



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