Programming in C—Functions.

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Function Prototype

A function prototype is just the declaration of a function that specifies function's name, parameters and return type. It doesn't contain function body.
A function prototype gives information to the compiler that the function may later be employed in the program.
Syntax of Function Prototype

returnType functionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2,...);

The function prototype isn't needed if the user-defined function is defined before the main() function.

Function Definition

Function definition contains the block of code to perform a selected task i.e. during this case, adding two numbers and returning it.
Syntax of Function Definition

returnType functionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2, ...)
{
 //body of the function
}

When a function is termed, the control of the program is transferred to the function definition. And, the compiler starts executing the codes inside the body of a function.

Function Call

Control of the program is transferred to the user-defined function by calling it.
Syntax of Function Call

functionName(argument1, argument2, ...);

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Compiler doesn't execute code inside functions, it just generates code for linker. Linker combines program code with necessary libraries and start-up code.

Run-time loader is the one that loads and executes the compiled and linked code.

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Compiler can execute code inside function but the code inside function should be another function. It can be done by RECURSION so called the Recursive Function...
Cheers.

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Nope... Compiler doesn't execute anything... Recursive functions don't need any executing from compiler as it is the linker that handles addresses of functions, not compiler.

Compiler might inline function inside another function or class member, but it doesn't try to execute the code in the function.

If compiler would try to execute any user code, cross-compilers wouldn't work at all.

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Linker links the object code to library files and makes final machine code.
Loader helps the code to get executed...

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Linker also writes the final symbol table and adjusts the object code so that different compilation units can find functions not local to themselves.

Most executables have base address added by linker that is used to calculate relative addresses for functions. Run-time loader can relocate the executable if two executables have same base address.

If supported and enabled, linker can also make final optimizations to the object code (LTO, link-time optimization).

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Well Thanks for the information, honestly I haven't any knowledge about this.
Cheers.

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I've been developer for over 35 years and helped fixing bugs in gcc and Visual C++ compiler.

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Alright..
Nice to meet you here...