Hi am new here on steemit, from kaduna State, Nigeria.
The project method is a medium of instruction which was introduced during the 18th century into the schools of architecture and engineering in Europe when graduating students had to apply the skills and knowledge they had learned in the course of their studies to problems they had to solve as practicing of their trade, for example, designing a monument, building a steam engine etc.
This method was been derived from John Deweys ideas on education which emphasizes that education should not just be an attempts of preparing the child for a future that is unknown, but rather, it should be able to fit the child into the society that he or she is living in.
In the early 20th Century, William Heard Kilpatrick expanded the project method into a philosophy of education. His device is child-centered and based in progressive education. Both approaches are used by teachers worldwide to this day. Unlike traditional education, proponents of the project method attempt to allow the student to solve problems with as little teacher direction as possible. The teacher is seen more as a facilitator than a delivery of knowledge and information. Students in a project method environment should be allowed to explore and experience their environment through their senses and, in a sense, direct their own learning by their individual interests. Very little is taught from textbooks and the emphasis is on experiential learning, rather than rote and memorization. A project method classroom focuses on democracy and collaboration to solve "purposeful" problems. Kilpatrick devised four classes of projects for his method: construction (such as writing a play), enjoyment (such as experiencing a concert), and problem (for instance, discussing a complex social problem like poverty), and specific learning (learning of skills such as swimming). The projects method is experience- centered strategy related to life- situation. This teaching strategy focus on
- To socialize a child
- To achieve cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives
This teaching strategy is based on the following principles
There must be felt need or problem before the method is initiated.
Duration must be specified.
Completed projects should be evaluated in other to give a sense of justification for the work done.
Project must not be set for the children too often.
Completed project must always be put to use.
Steps and appropriate reasons for carrying out each project must be spell out appropriately for children.
Principle of Utility: Chrome those projects which are closer to the social life.
Principle of readiness: helping the learners in finding the solution of the problem with their active participation.
Learning by Doing: as learners performs certain tasks and experiences new things. This adds to his knowledge and results in learning.
Socialization: It should be base on that which will develop the feeling of cooperation and group work.
- Inter-disciplinary Approach. To involve the knowledge OF different subjects in solving the social problems.
Advantages and Disadvantages OF Project method of Teaching
Children work together towards the same directed goal and therefore their aims are similar, that is, to overcome any difficulty in other to archive the desired goal.
It is child centered
This teaches them collective responsibility
It enables the teacher to show how inter related the subject and time table could be.
Children come into contact with real life situations and problems through project work than the would have when only working in class.
It helps in developing society norms and social values among the learners.
It provides invaluable opportunities for correlation of various elements of the subject matter and for transfer of training or learning.
It helps in growing knowledge very effectively as a result of their come cooperation on society participation in the spirit of democracy.
The project cannot be planned for all subjects and whole subject matter cant be taught by this strategy.
It is not economical from the point of view of time and cost.
It is very difficult for A teacher to plan or to exusted the projects to the learners and supervise them.
It is possible for some children to be overactive while others passive.
The real needs of the individual child may be neglected by the emphases on social groups and its activities.
There is no certainty that all children will be equally interested in the topic and so take active part in carrying it out.
It is actually not a method a teacher could use frequently in Nigeria where examination are features prominently in our educational system, the children are likely to fail in the neglected subjects during the terminal or or end of year examination.
Some subjects in the curriculum will become neglected and thus suffer as a result of overconcentration on particular subjects.
This teaching strategy should not be used an independent teaching strategy but as A supplementary telling technique.
Teacher should try to utilize the inexperience and want projects to prepare modes etc.
To avoid the problem OF supervision, teacher may appoint a leader to each group of students.
Teacher should fix a time limit for each project.
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