Stroke or Cerebrovascular accident is a sudden and severe seizure in which a rupture or occlusion occurs in a brain blood vessel, which interrupts the blood flow in the brain to the area that is fed by the blood vessel in which the occlusion or rupture occurs, leading to unconsciousness Or paralysis or dysfunction of a part of the brain that has had a lack of ischemia.  Stroke is one of the leading causes of death around the world.  It is also a medical emergency, and the patient must receive urgent medical attention.  The result of stroke rapid onset of neurological symptoms within seconds to minutes of a stroke, a neurological disease , the largest and most prevalent in our time, and when it decreases ischemiaPart of the brain as a result of the thrombosis in whole or in part; the part of the lack of perfusion occurs in a deficit and fails to perform its functions correctly; because the oxygen and blood-borne food was cut to him, leading to the possibility of death of brain cells, and vary the severity of symptoms and deficiencies according to the severity of the stroke Obstruction or amount of bleeding. 
Causes of stroke
There are reasons for different lead to stroke , cerebral, including: 
Small cerebral occlusion.
A blood clot from the carotid artery.
Occurrence of cerebral haemorrhage as a result of high pressure or head injury or explosion of a blood vessel or because of taking extendible anti-clotting medications.
Risk factors for stroke
- There are several risk factors for a stroke, but these factors can be improved by using treatment and improving lifestyle to a healthier lifestyle, including: 
° High blood pressure.
° Smoking .
° Heart disease .
° High cholesterol in the body.
° Alcohol consumption.
° Peripheral vascular disease.
° Obesity .
° Lack of exercise and lack of movement.
° Drug addiction.
- Factors that increase the likelihood of infection and can not be improved, including: 
° Previous stroke with transient stroke.
° A family member was previously injured by a stroke.
° Age: approximately age 55 and over.
° Race: Americans and Africans are more likely to have strokes.
Stroke types Since the causes of stroke are different, there are different types of stroke: 
Transient Ischemic Attack: The appearance of symptoms of a stroke temporarily due to a lack of blood supply to a part of the brain; due to thrombosis of blood vessels , usually lasts for no more than five minutes, If symptoms disappear, because this means the possibility of a future stroke.
Ischemic Stroke: Approximately 85% of strokes are brain clots caused by cerebral ischemia. This clot occurs when the arteries of the brain are blocked or narrowed, leading to a lack of thrombosis in the part of the arteries.
Hemorrhagic Stroke: This stroke occurs when one of the blood vessels in the brain ruptures, bleeding from the blood vessel to the cerebral material, and this condition occurs because of any reason that leads to the impact of blood vessels, including: uncontrolled hypertension , Excessive use of anticoagulants , or the result of cerebral aneurysms.
Symptoms of stroke
The symptoms of the stroke are sudden; they usually develop within hours, rarely develop for days; the symptoms appear to depend on the part of the affected brain and its function; the symptoms that appear on the person are very important; These symptoms include: 
Problems of speech, comprehension and comprehension; such as words become heavy and the person does not understand the spoken words.
Paralysis or numbness and numbness of the limbs, usually on one side, and the mouth drooping when trying to smile.
A problem with vision, such as the patient suffering from cataracts in vision or stupidity, or doubling the visual image in the eye or in both eyes.
Problems with walking; due to dizziness and feeling of unbalance.
The patient can feel a severe headache .
If a person is in a place where someone else has experienced symptoms similar to what has been mentioned, they can be sure of these steps if the person has a stroke or not, and must do it quickly: 
Face: the request of the patient to smile, it is symptoms of the clot occurrence of dilution of the patient's mouth from one hand when the smile.
The two arms: the patient is asked to lift both arms, and the observation of the fall of one or the inability of the person to raise one of the arms.
Talking: asking the patient to repeat a certain sentence and remark strange speech or slow or that his words incomprehensible.
Time: Time is a very important factor in the case of a stroke; if a person close to the patient or noticed the symptoms of stroke, must be called for ambulance and emergency access as soon as possible.
The period in which the brain remains without oxygen and food greatly influences the outcomes and complications after saving the patient's life, complications in the function of the affected area also occur, and the complications that can occur are:   
Paralysis in one part of the body or loss of ability to control a group of muscles in the body, such as loss of control ability of part of the face or arm muscles, and physical therapy can help the patient to overcome this problem to carry out vital activities of life, such as walking and eating.
Difficulty speaking, swallowing or understanding, word and language therapists can be used to help in this case.
Emotional problems, a person who has a stroke can be psychologically affected by this incident and can also be depressed. Repeated stroke.
Treatment of stroke
Stroke treatment depends on the type of stroke; is it the most common obstructive clot or hemorrhagic stroke. In both cases, emergency treatments are offered because the stroke of all kinds is an emergency requiring urgent treatment.
Treatment of obstructive cerebral thrombosis
In the first three hours of the event, the doctor will prescribe a warfarin-like anticoagulant (warfarin). The earlier the timing, the better the results will be in saving the patient, reducing the complications that may occur. Aspirin is given in emergencies quickly to reduce The possibility of another clot, because it prevents the formation of thrombosis, and some patients respond to intravenous injection of the plasminogen activator. These injections act to dissolve clot, and can remove the thrombosis manually, and there are other ways. 
Treatment of hemorrhagic stroke
As for the treatment of haemorrhagic stroke, it is based on reducing bleeding and reducing the pressure caused by bleeding on the brain by giving drugs to reduce the pressure of the brain and blood pressure ; to prevent convulsions or vasoconstriction of the brain. When bleeding stops, supportive medical care is provided until the body absorbs blood, the blood is cured and absorbed, and the blood is absorbed in the case of bruises in the body. If the bleeding is severe and the bleeding area is large, the doctor may have to use surgical methods to remove the blood and relieve pressure on the brain.  
Stroke prevention is important for all people, but more so for people who have had a previous transient stroke, even obstructive or hemorrhagic stroke, people with various heart diseases , significant hypertension, elevated body fat or obese people. Honak has several things that a person must do to prevent a stroke, including: 
- Control of high blood pressure .
- Control of high cholesterol in the blood.
- Stop drinking tobacco and its derivatives, and alcoholic beverages.
- Exercise permanently and increase physical activity of the body.
- Eat healthy.
A doctor may prescribe blood transfusions for a person who may have a stroke or have had a stroke, although the stroke can not be predicted, but lifestyle changes are very important to avoid strokes.
By: Hasan Matar