The hadith of the Prophet is the main life guide of all Muslims after the Qur'an. Therefore Muslims are guided by a hadith whose purpose is to be practiced and to encourage others to the same intent is an obligation, so that the obligation is fulfilled the same intention in choosing a hadah saheeh and hadith hasan to be practiced and researching hadith dhai'f in various various kinds.
In this case the author will trace the division of hadith seen in terms of quality. Seeing from the development and spread of hadith so fast, whether it is a hadah saheeh, hadith hasan, or hadith dai'f, then the new hadith can become maqbul if if it meets its requirements both in terms of sanad (sanadnya continued, fair and fair dhabit Thus, the hadiths of the maqbul exist that can be practiced (ma'mul bihi) and some can not be practiced (ghairu ma'mul bihi) .Therefore, the division of hadith is seen in terms of whether or not it is divided into three, the saheeh hadeeth , hasan and daif.
Concerning the above discussion then the authors will discuss in detail through this paper the Classification of Hadith Ahad by Quality, and some sub-chapters of which are the saheeh hadith and its division, hadith hasan and its division and hadith dha'if and its division.
The muhadditsin, dividing hadith ahad in three levels, namely sahih hadith, hadith hasan, and hadith da'if. In general, scholars do not argue, the number of rawi, state of being, and state of matan in determining the division of these traditions into hadith sahih, hasan, and dha'if. Regarding the three divisions of the hadith ahad will be in uaraikan on each part of each
- Classification of Hadith on Quality
The writer in will put forward hadith in review in terms of quality. As for the intent with the quality here is the value, level, content or quality of a hadith that is in the rendering to the Prophet. in review from side kehujjahannya. By knowing the quality of the hadith, will be found the hadith that can be used as hujjah because the quality is good and will be found also there is a hadith of poor quality so that it can not be made hujjah.
- Sahih Hadith and its Division
2.1. Understanding hadith sahih
Literally, authentic hadith can be interpreted as healthy, safe, true, valid and perfect. This is the antonym of saqim (sick). Accordingly, a sahih hadith means a hadith that is safe, sound, valid or perfect. Whereas according to terminology, sahih hadith is defined as follows:
"The saheeh hadith is the hadith of a continuous musnad (to the Prophet) with the narration by the 'just and dhabit a just man again dhabit also to the end of the sanad, and there is no irregularities and defects.'
'Ajjaj al-Khatib gives the meaning of hadith sahih, which has been given that understanding by the scholars who lived beforehand that is: Hadith which is linked sanadnya and with history that can be believed starting from the beginning of sanad until the end of sanad which without blemish and disabled.
2.2. Terms of Hadith Sahih
Regarding of the two terms of hadith sahih mentioned above, can be seen almost the same in terms of understanding, at least there are some conditions that must be fulfilled by a hadith so that can be called as sahih hadith that is:
a. A valid Hadith is a continuous hadith (ittishalul isnad). Therefore, the mungkathi 'ah, mu'dhal, mu'allaq, and mudallas, can not be called as authentic hadiths because of their unrelatedness. Thus, the hadith of the Prophet who qualified Shahih, must be a hadith musnad and not just a muttasil hadith.
b. The sahih hadith is not a hadith which is syadz (odd). The person who narrated the hadith is indeed reliable. Can be understood that the syadz here is a hadith that matannya not contrary to another hadith more powerful or more tsiqqah.
c. The narrators are 'fair. Whereas 'Ajjaj al-Khatib gives limits on the words' fair deeds fasq (ungodliness) and lies. So if a person loses one of these traits then the hadith is classified to hadith dha'if, meaning no longer valid.
d. Truly authentic hadith is not a hadith that is exposed to illat. It can be interpreted that Illat here is a hidden or vague nature that causes its value or quality to be invalid, then the hadith is defective in its acceptance, can be seen outwardly the hadith is free from illat (defect). Thus it can be said that the hadith in which there is no disabling the validity of a hadith.
e. the dzabit dragons. It can be understood that the person called dzabit must listen intactly to what he receives or hears, and can be understood as to what he hears, illustrated in his memory, then is able to communicate to others.
2.3. The division of Sahih Hadith
The scholars of hadith, may divide the hadith of the sahih into two kinds, namely: sahih li dzatihi and shahih li ghairihi
a. Shahih li dzatihi, that is, the hadith which because of its own condition has fulfilled the terms or attributes of acceptance of hadith perfectly, ie the terms of the five mentioned above.
The example is:
"The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said:" The Muslim is a person who does not disturb the other Muslims, either with the tongue or with his hands, and is the one who emigrated (Muhajir) is the one who moves from what Allah forbids " . (Muttafakun 'alaih)
Regarding the hadith when we see in terms of the number of perawinya, including the famous ahadith. The hadith is narrated by Bukhari with its sanad as follows:
- Adam bin Ilyas
- Ibn Safar
- Abdullah bin Amr bin Ash
From the above description it can be understood that Rawi and sanat Bukhari, can be seen from all of them are fulfilling the terms of the five mentioned above. Therefore, the hadith is called the hadith of Shahih li-dzatihi.
b. Shahih li Ghairihi, the hadith which in itself does not meet the conditions that require acceptance of a hadith, meaning that hadith has not reached the quality as a saheeh hadeeth.
This can happen because there are some things, for example, the perawinya is known to be fair but from the side of his dhabitan, he is seen less or less, this hadith can be said shahih li ghairihi because there is another hadith the same or equivalent (redaction) narrated through other equivalent or even more valid channels; or just Muhammad Muhammad Darwisy added it in line with the verse of Allah or the points of shari'ah or agreed by the scholars about his acceptance.
"If it is not burdensome to my people, then I will command every time to perform prayers" (Narrated by Bukhari)
Of the hadith above, who became one of the rulers of this hadith sanad is named Muhammad bin Amr bin Al-qamah. He belongs to a believer, but his memorization by the clerics brings about his perfection. While the other rawi-rawinya on the sanad, all tsiqah, therefore the quality of hadith is Hasan li dzatihi. Then there is another sanat that contains the hadith. Therefore, the hadith is increasing in degree, so it becomes a hadith of Shahih li ghairihi.
Among the works containing the sahih hadith are, Shahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Mustadrak Al-Hakim, Saheeh Ibn Hibban, Saheeh Ibn Khuzaimah.
- Hasan's Hadith and its Division
3.1. Understanding Hadith Hasan
The scholars muhaditsin disagree in giving understanding of hadits hasan. Differences of opinion in a definition is of course there have different effects. While At-Turmizy gives an understanding of hadith hasan is a hadith which in sanadnya there is no one accused of lies, people who are irregularities in matannya and hadith is narrated not from one department (has many roads) worth the meaning.
According to language, hasan can be interpreted as good or good. While the meaning of hasan hadith according to Imam Turmizi is: what we call hasan hadith in our book is a good hadith in our opinion, it means that every hadith narrated through sanad in it there is no rawi who in suspected lie, matan hadith not clarified in sanway through sanat others are equal. So such hadith we call hadits hasan.
Hasan according to the language that has been mentioned by Munzier Suparta in the book of Hadith Science, can be interpreted "something favored and inclined by lust". Meanwhile, according to the term, the scholars differ in defining the hasan hadith. Seeing in terms of the occurrence of dissent, because among them there is a grouping of hadits hasan as a hadith that occupies a position between the hadith sahih and hadith dha'if, which can be made hujjah. According to the history of the 'ulama, the first to give rise to the term "Hadith Hasan" is Imam Al-Turmizi.
From the above mentioned it can be concluded that the term hadith hasan means its level under the saheeh hadith and is higher than the hadha dha'if. Then for more details there are some terms and distribution of hasan hadith that will be described below.
3.2. Terms of Hadith Hasan
In detail about the terms of hadith hasan are as follows:
i. Sanadnya continued
ii. The marriage is' just
iii. The dhabit is a dhabit, but the quality of its unity is under the perennials of the transmitters of hadah saheeh
iv. There is no awkwardness or syadz; and do not move.
Regarding the explanation of each point of hadith hasan requirement, has the authors discussed on the terms of the hadeeth traditions above.
3.3. The division of Hadith Hasan
The scholars of hadith divide hasan hadith into two parts, namely: hasan li dhatihi and hasan li ghairihi.
3.3.1. Hasan Li Dhatihi
The notion of hadith hasan li dhatih, as mentioned above, is a hadith which is continuously connected with fair transmission, even dhabit is imperfect, from the beginning of sanat to the end of sanat without any peculiarity (syadz) and defective ('Ilat). It can be understood that the existence of hasan li-zatihi hadith is not due to any other guidance or reinforcement, but because of itself.
3.3.2. Hasan Li Ghairihi
The hadith hasan li-ghairih is a hadith that is sanad and rawi that is not known of its expertise in narrating hadith. However, they do not arrive at the degree level of the fasiq or the accused of lying or other unfavorable traits. In this sense, the hadith hasan li-ghairihi is basically a dha'if hadith which is not in because the performer is forgetful or many mistakes or the wicked.
The books that contain hadith hasan are contained in some of the books, among them: Jami 'At-Tirmidhi, known as Sunan at-Tirmidhi, is the source to know the hadith hasan, Sunan Abu Dawud, Sunan Ad-Daruqutthi.
- Hadith Dhai'f and Division
4.1. Understanding Hadith Dha'if
Hadith dai'f ranks third in the classification of hadith. Daif according to language can be interpreted is a weak hadith, the opposite of the strong. But the scholars of hadith have a weak assumption (small or low) about the truth of the hadith is derived from the Prophet Muhammad. Furthermore, the definition of hadith dai'f according to the scholars of hadith are all hadiths which do not accumulate to him the qualities for hadith accepted and according to most opinion of the ulama; hadith dha'if is a hadith which in itself does not accumulate the properties of hadits saheeh and hadith hasan.
Hadith dhaif it not only does not meet the requirements of sahih hadith, but does not meet the conditions of hadith hasan. Then in the hadith dhaif there are also things that cause greater allegations to establish the hadith is not derived from the Prophet Muhammad. Based on the above, it can be concluded, hadith dha'if is a hadith that does not have the criteria of hadits sahih and hadith hasan.
4.2. The division of Hadith Dha'if
Speaking of the division of hadith dha'if, Ibn Salalah argues that dividing the hadith dha'if to 42 kinds, as al-Hafidh al-Iraqi also quotes these forms. Then the author will discuss the following discussion is due to see from two aspects, namely, hadith dhai'f seen in terms of miscarriage sanat and seen in terms other than the fall sanat.
4.2.1 In terms of the existence of a fallen sanad
The hadith that is cut off is a clear sanadnya is classified as dha'if hadith, because seeing in terms of one of the hadith belonging to the hadits shahih and hadith hasan is a continuous sanadnya. Therefore the unrelated hadiths are as follows:
- Hadith Munqathi 'ie hadith which abort perawinya from sanadnya, or in sanad mentioned someone who is not clear. This is classified as hadith dai'f because there is no continuity in sanad.
- Mudallas Hadith, the hadith narrated in the predicted way, that the hadith is not stained. Mudallas is divided into two:
a. Tadlis Isnad is a hadith conveyed by a narrator who narrates a hadith from his contemporaries, although he never heard directly from him, or from the same person but never met, and he created that image that hears directly from people the.
b. Tadlis Syuyukh is a narrator who narrates a hadith heard from a teacher who is mentioned by his name, or gives his teacher a trait with greater attributes than a reality unknown to the masses.
c. Tadlis Taswiyah (tajwid) is a narrator who narrates hadith, taken from his tsiqah teacher, while his teacher is received from a weak teacher, and the teacher is received from a tsiqah teacher too, but the mudallis narrates without mentioning weak rawi, even he narrated with lafadh which implies that the tsiqah all the raw.
- Hadith Mu'allaq, ie hadith that falling rawinya a or more from the beginning of sanad.
- Hadith Mu'dlal, ie, hadiths are aborted two or more consecutive narrators in a row.
- Mursal Hadith, the hadith that died after the tabadin (no mention of the name of the final sanad). Thus the mursal hadith is an absolute hadith marfu 'tabi'i, big or small, and propped directly on the Messenger of Allah.
Seeing from the above mentioned hadith because there sanadnya interrupted, it can be said that, if no other explanations then still belong to the quality of hadith dhai'f.
4.2.2. Viewed in terms other than the fall sanad
- Haits mudha'af, which is a hadeeth which is judged by some powerful scholars, but some other scholars mendhai'fkannya, either on sanadnya or in matannya.
- Mudltharib Hadith, which is a hadith narrated by various paths, but one with the other contradicting one another and difficult to compromise.
- Hadith Maqlub, ie the hadith contained in it the name of rawi or part of the upside-down backward, or part matannya.
- Hadith Syaz, ie, hadith narrated by the tsiqah, who has no more narrators than him.
- Hadith Munka, the hadith which in sanadnya there is a weak narrator (dai'f), a lot of negligence or appearing his wickedness.
- Hadith Matruk, which is a hadith which in sanadnya narrated by a person who is accused of lying, he is famous in his speech like lying, or people who actually do fasiq.
Works or books that allegedly contain many hadith dha'if among others are as follows: first, third Mu'jam At-Thabarani - Al Kabir, As-Shaghir. Second, Al-Afrad, by Ad-Daruquthni. in the hadiths of Al-Afrad there are hadiths of Al-Fardu Al-Muthlaq, and Al-Fardu An-Nisbi. Third, the collection of works of Al-Khahtib Al-Baghdadi. Fourth, the book of Hilyatul Auliya 'wa Thabaqatul Ashfiya' by Abu Nu'aim Al-Ashbahani.