Determining human personality as well as its personality has been a problem. At present, evaluation of complete personality is not considered necessary, but for some purpose measurement of personality is necessary. Therefore different methods of personality measurement are used for different purposes. Methods of personality testing or measurement - Measurement of personality can be divided into three types of methods, which are as follows -
- subjective method or Self-based methods
- Objective methods
- Projection methods
(1.)subjective method : - Through these methods, we obtain information related to the person from the same person or his friends or relatives. The basis of these methods is its symptoms, experiences, objectives, needs, interests and expressions. He gives all the information through them. The following techniques come under this method:
●Autobiography: - The personality properties of the person studied by this method are divided into some titles, through which he brings definite psychological conclusions on the basis of his experiences, objectives, purposes, interests and explanations. But there are some difficulties in this method.
●Case history: - Under this method, we study inheritance and environmental elements, which affect the life of a person. This method mainly depends on autobiography. In addition, information is collected from family, history, income, medical system, environment and social status etc. Apart from the above mentioned activities. This method is often used in the study of abnormal individuals.
●Interview Method: - In this, sit in front of the interviewer and talk about it. In this, the psychologists who take interviews evaluate the motivators, manifestations and symptoms. There should be the virtue of explaining the reality by impressing, hypnotized and misleading the subject in the evangelist.
●Inventory Method or Questionnaire Method: - A questionnaire is presented in front of which there are questions ranging from 100 to 500. The answers are related to yes or no. This method is most commonly used in personality measurement. Reads the questionnaire about and clarifies your answers. They can be used both individually and collectively.
(2.) Objective Methods: - These methods are dependent on the fact that how does the observant look at his direct behavior? These methods are also functioning based on the basis of intellect, interest and interest. It is the idea of its exponents that to understand personality, it should be seen in the environment of life so that its habits, characteristics and character characteristics can be manifested. The following are the different methods of using the objective method:
● Controlled observation: - The use of this method is possible only in the psychological laboratory because it is difficult to work in the environment and control it. In this, about sitting alone in the room is given to do any work and its actions, gestures and process are observed in such a way that the observer can not see them. At present, the behavior of the subject is also noted through the film. In this way the entire personality is evaluated.
● Rating Scale: - An evaluation of qualitative behavior is done in the sequence scale. In it there are a few descriptive adjectives or phrases written under the long line. At the one end, the phrase has an extreme limit and the other has extreme limitations of opposite qualities. The sequencing marks the symptoms on the measurement, from which it is known that the extent to which that quality is available in such a person.
(3.) Projective methods:- Techniques through these methods reveal their reactions in the form of stories by introducing them into internal traits, ideologies, expressions and air imagery. On his basis, his personality is easily evaluated.
● Adjustment of Personality: -
Man is a social creature. He wants to remain in the society till the end of time. He appears more happy at the same time, while he attains self interest, likes and beliefs group. The name of this behavioral mobility is 'Adjustment'. When the person is unhappy, it is a maladjustment of his behavior.
Meaning of Adjustment: - When a person uses mobility to meet the needs and self-confirmation of the requirements, it is called 'the process of adjustment'.
● According to Gates and others - "Adjustment is a continuous process through which the person changes his behavior to keep a balanced relationship between himself and his environment." It is thus evident that the person is self- With the help of helpers, conquers the situation.
◆ Deprivation, mental-strife and stress are the major factors in influencing the adjustments of adjustments. All these three forces force the person to go for a coherent behavior due to their side effects. Therefore, to achieve victory over these three, the person has to adjust. These techniques are the following:
(1) Direct methods: - When the person tries to establish adjustment by living in consciousness, then the efforts are considered under the direct methods. In implementing these measures, he uses his discretion, rationality and intellectual capacity etc. These methods are used specifically for the permanent solution of any particular problem of adjustment. The following methods come under these measures:
● Solving of obstacles: - A person makes a conscious effort to end the obstacles in fulfillment of their needs. If this kind of obstruction ends, his mental stress is exhausted. In this conscious effort, practice and passion work importantly.
● To find other ways: - When a person is unable to overcome various obstacles generated in the fulfillment of his goal for some reason, then any other way or 'solution' has to be searched. Thus his mental stress is reduced and he establishes adjustment.
● Changes in Aims: - When a person is unable to succeed in his goal and purpose and conquers the obstacles not generated, he abandons that purpose and accepts a parallel objective.
● Analysis and Decision: - When a person gets engrossed with the circumstances, he loses mental balance. He has to find an alternative to achieve the goal. This path depends only on accurate analysis of the situation and making the right decisions.
(2.) Indirect Methods: - To maintain mental retardation, a person has to take help of unconscious actions too. So indirect measures are those, which they adopt unconsciously. Indirect remedies are used to avoid stressful situations and grief. This is referred to as psychological 'safety procedures' because they defend the self-esteem of the person and defend it at the time when it is concerned due to despair, so the indirect methods are the following:
● Sublimation: - Refinement is the mental process of unconscious mind, within which the person's original sensory power, requirements etc. are turned towards the artificial side, which is the acceptance of society.
● Withdrawal: - When the person gets hurt or distress, the person separates himself from them. Such behavior is termed as escapist behavior. These behaviors are anti-society.
● Regression: - The technique of retrograde is seen when one goes back to the initial forms of behavior due to anxiety caused by frustration.
● Identification: - Identity means to take the other person's qualities into his personality. When a person understands his importance in the world then he tries to learn.
● Dependency: - When a person receives failure in spite of all attempts in a task, then he submits his own problem to any qualified person and follows his instructions and leads to life.
● Rationalization: - Under this device, the person blames other motors by hiding the actual motivator. Thus, no fault of the person's ability is considered, but accusations are made on the other.
● Repression: - Some people use suppression to eliminate anxiety and get rid of them.
● Projection: - The operation of the launch protects from anxious impulses. The source of conflict is concealed by imposing any other motivators under this device.
(3.) Compensatory Methods: - It is the rule of nature that it tells the human being successful in any field and fails in any. So when he fails in a field or experiences a lack of self, then he gets success in other fields. This type of stress ends. This method is used both direct and indirect methods.
(4) Aggressive Methods: - Aggressive method refers to the conflicting behavior generated by the person, in which it is faced by aggressive behavior of obstruction or obstruction. With this method the mental strain of the person ends loosened. Aggressive measures are used in both direct and indirect forms. Direct aggression is that, in which the person attacks the person or the object that causes his dissatisfaction. The 'indirect aggression' is in which the person is relieved of mental stress by not aggressively behaving aggressively and aggressively behaving aggressively.