Mountstuart Elphinstone’s and his work in Bombay (Mumbai).

3년 전


Mountstuart Elphinstone’s was appointed as the
first Governor of Bombay Province. He ruled the Bombay Province
from 1818 to 1827. During his reign, he introduced number of
reforms and tried to modernize the Bombay Province. He initiated
social, economic, educational, administrative, legal and political
reforms and provided law and order, peace and security after the
long period of disorder in Maharashtra. He laid the foundation of
sound administrative system in Maharashtra.


Mountstuart Elphinstone’s tenure as Governor of Bombay
Province was marked by several significant developments. He was
the great statesmen and farsighted Governor. After becoming the
Governor, he made the historic ‘Satara Declaration’ on 1st Feb.

  1. In order to bring the vast province under control, he first
    established sound and efficient administrative system. He
    established law and order in state by adopting the strict measures
    and ended the anarchy and disorder. He suppressed the thieves
    and Pendharis and the people of Maharashtra witnessed the era of
    peace and order and they started respecting them. In order to have
    smooth functioning of Bombay Province, he divided it into number
    of Districts and appointed Collectors. He started the Kotwal (Police)
    system and continued the traditional system of village
    administration. He employed the local people of Maharashtra for
    various jobs.


During his reign, he reformed the judicial system of Bombay
Province. He abolished the defects of judicial system and tried to
end the unequal distribution of justice. He modernized the judicial
system based on the principle of equality. One of his principal
achievements was the compilation of the “Elphinstone code.” By
which he followed the policy of Rule of Law and enshrined the
citizen’s equality before the law and equal protection of the law
irrespective of all forms of discrimination.


Mountstuart Elphinstone’s period also witnessed the
economic development of Maharashtra. He introduced number of
reforms to bring out changes in the economy of Maharashtra. He
first established peace and order in society and then solved the
economic problems of peasants and labourers. He first studied the
social set up of Maharashtra then addressed their issues. He
introduced Rayotwari system in Bombay province by abolishing the
middlemen. He appointed Patil’s to collect land revenue directly
from Rayots. He abolished all previous unjust taxes and followed
the conducive policies for their happiness. He provided financial
assistance and agricultural loan to bring under cultivation the
barren land. Trade and commerce was also expanded during his
span. The traditional occupations of Alutedar and Balutedar were
also promoted by him. Number of new industries started which led
to the further development of Maharashtra.


During his tenure, Mountstuart Elphinstone greatly promoted
education in India. He may fairly be regarded as the founder of the
system of state education in India. He is credited with the opening
of several educational institutions accessible to the Indian
population. He was the first person who introduced the Western
system of education based on the principle of secularism into this
country. He founded Sanskrit College at Pune in 1821 (which later
became Deccan College) with the Dakshina funds of the Peshwas.
He has not encouraged the Charity schools and the schools of
Christian Missionaries. He was mainly responsible for spreading of
education to Native Indians. He established number of schools in
Pune and Bombay region for native people and gave financial aid
to Indian institutions. He provided government aid in order to start
vernacular schools in Maharashtra. His connection with
the Bombay Presidency is commemorated in the endowment
of Elphinstone College by local communities.


In this way Mountstuart Elphinstone initiated number of
reforms in Maharashtra due to which modern Maharashtra came
into existence. Due to his tireless service, he was described as an
enlightened governor of Bombay and was credited him as the
maker of modern Maharashtra.


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