A cryptocurrency is a digital medium of exchange that works similar to traditional money, but has no real equivalent and is only in digital form. The first major crypto currency started was Bitcoin in 2009, and since then a lot of new alternative crypto currencies have become available thanks to the immense popularity that Bitcoin has managed to gain.
Cryptocurrencies are a kind of digital currency that practices the principles of cryptography to implement, a decentralized and stable economy where you can mine and trade them. When matching cryptocurrencies with fiat money or real cash, the most significant difference is how people or individual may impact the production of money significantly.
Dozens of cryptocurrency terms have been defined, most are similar to and derived from the first fully implemented cryptocurrency protocol, Bitcoin. Preventing the fundamental security of a cryptocurrency is entirely possible, but the cost may be intentionally high.
Most cryptocurrencies are meant to gradually introduce new units of currency, placing an ultimate cap on the total amount of money that will ever be in circulation. This is done both to mimic the scarcity of expensive metals and to evade hyperinflation. As a result, such cryptocurrencies attend to experience hyper deflation as they grow in popularity and the amount of the currency in circulation approaches this finite cap. Cryptocurrencies are considered as much anonymous and untraceable means of payment.
The original cryptocurrency created was Bitcoin which was set up in 2009 by developer referring to himself as Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin uses SHA-256 as for its security system, later on, the Litecoin developed which uses the script as a proof-of-work, as well as becoming faster transaction confirmations. Another most widely used crypto coin is the Peercoin (XPM) which uses proof-of-stake or a proof-of-work hybrid system which is entirely different from the other two mentioned above.
Hence, these are all necessary information about cryptocurrencies you need to know.