Crypto Academy Week 16 - Homework Post for Professor @pelon53

8개월 전

Hello Steemian,

It is another beautiful week with a wonderful topic lectured by Prof. @Pelon53 and am happy to be one of the participants of the class. I participated and I understood the class topic, Hashgraph Technology. It was really a great lecture and I will always say yes to the future lectures.

Introduction

Hashgraph is an advanced technology used for sharing information. It allows for secure transactions such as digital money transfer without a Centralized computer system. Hashgraph is a decentralized algorithm (Technology) and it's also part of the 3rd generation of cryto project.

Furthermore, Hashgraph Technology was invented by Dr. leemon Baird who is a P.h.d. graduate in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University. Swirlds inc. was lunched by Dr. Leemon Baird in 2016, together with his longtime friend and colleague Mance Harmon who was a former faculty member at US Air force Academy program for computer science and cyber security in the same year Swirlds published it's first white paper and the aim of the two friend which is Baird and Harmon shared for Swirlds was to enable developers to create distributed applications with unlimited scope and scale.

However, the main aim of Hashgraph technology is to improve the efficiency of transaction on the network with characteristics of high scalability i.e ability to process a large Transaction within a short period of time(per seconds) with high level of security. Hashgraph is different from blockchain. Hashgraph is a competitor to blockchain and one of the difference is that Hashgraph techniques to ensure fast, fair and secure consensus is Gossip protocol while In the case of Blockchain (POS) which is Proof Of Statke and (POW) which is Proof Of Work is employ. I will be explaining more on Gossip Protocol as I will be proceeding with my homework.



Question 1

Explain in detail the Gossip protocol, used in Hashgraph.


Gossip protocol is a consensus technology used in hashgraph distributing of information between the available node network. The main meaning of Gossip protocol historically, is "Gossip about Gossip" which means nodes don't just Gossip about a certain bit of information to each other such as the information of the transaction that happen between the nodes (A and B) but they also pass information in details; the time it was involved, what node is engage in before data arrived, the time in which the data of other nodes arrived and all other information attached to it. That's means they are gossiping about gossiping and the main aim of all this gossip about Gossip in hashgraph is to reach a consensus that is faster than Blockchain technology.

Gossip about gossip is the history of how these events are related to each other through their parent hashes, resulting in a (DAG) - Directed Acyclic Graph called a hashgraph. Gossip protocols is a protocol that use gossip to participate in things like data on the P2P platform, which the various nodes connected to the network in distributing and passing information. Also, more faster and efficiently among themself.

Hashgraph is a very great competitor with Bitcoin. In hashgraph, there is a continuous gossiping amongst nodes in thequest to get to reach a consensus that is faster than Bitcon. For Example, Each node are not together they are attached to another node randomly within the same node network. If node A and B is pairs together, when information get to node A it will quickly distribute it the information received to node B. While node B also will quickly pass to another node if randomly paired together.

The random pairing that is discovered among nodes are done very fast and quick manner in such a way that information are not repeated on already redistributed nodes private informations. That means, it works basically for the propability concept of distributing information.

Also, talking about virtual voting as the second technique after Gossip protocols, incorporated into hashgraph. It’s the fastest way known for humanity to send information. it is easy to validate/confirm transactions as all system parts is aware that other nodes involved in the transaction thereby enhances faster validation by reaching consensus. Gossip about Gossip that do occur among the nodes has made it possible to reduce attacks or hackers during transaction and also help with effective communication within it peers.

However, the main objective of this Protocol is to communicate as fast/quickly as possible through the vast network of distributed nodes. And for this to be archieved, this type of protocol start from basic idea that process and also communicate with their peers. Also, Gossip protocols can be classified into two types;

  • Broadcast Protocol -

This protocol is made of two case which are information dissemination or propagation protocols.

The first case is that the under group communication, the peer to peer nodes are always in a continuous and const
ant communication so that information can be quickly and reliably distributed. While the second case is propagation protocols, the information sprend ocasionally (i.e. once in a while) over the peer network so Nodes event does not instantly trigger the spread of information.

  • Aggregation protocol -

In this protocol, The peer network receive and process information in order to send a summary of this information to the other nodes available and connected to the network without delay. The method is known as a distributed data mining. The protocol store are processed data.

Advantages of Gossip Protocols

  • It is a protocol that distribute information in a decentralized and autonomous way. It distribute information according is will.

  • It has the ability to operate correctly. Even in hard times where the connectivity of some nodes is affected. The information will still be distributed in the same way.

  • Gossip Protocols is highly scalable, which is seen from its highly efficient level of performance.

  • Gossip Protocols also shows high level of sturdiness in it operation because if failure occurs in one or more nodes, it doesn't affect or interrupt the performance of the other nodes in the network for the distribution of information.

The distribution network that uses Gossip protocol

  • Hashgraph: It depends on Gossip protocols for the transfer and dissemination of information between the network.

  • Dymano: it also uses Gossip protocol to keep track of memberships, which helps us to discover new members that are participating in the program, as well as to detect any failure in the process.

  • Apache Cassandra: It uses Gossip protocols to open communication through which all its nodes can ba able to access get information and also help the pairs to discover the propagation of metadata in it's network.

  • Bitcoin: Uses Gossip protocol to distribute information of nonce value to the each other of it mining nodes.



Question 2

Explain Tolerance to Byzantine Faults in Hashgraph.


Before I start with the explaination of Tolerance to Byzantine faults in hashgraph, I would like to explain what Byzantine faults is. Byzantine fault is a situation where by failure of one of the nodes in a distributed network is unknown to the other functional nodes.

Hashgraph is Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerant which simply means that nodes of a network can only be valid when there are consensus within the different nodes in the network. And this is guaranteed when a less than 1/3 of the total nodes are malicious, hence having an over a 2/3 of the nodes reaching a consensus to validate a transaction.

Hashgraph can also be called Asynchronous Byzantine Faults Tolerant which transactions are only validated when nodes or honest member in a distributed network reach consensus and such can be mathematically proven that every nodes of the network are going to reach the same consensus.



Question 3

Make a comparison between Hashgraph Vs Blockchain, for a voting process in your country. Which technology would you choose? Why?


Firstly before I start with the comparison between Blockchain and hashgraph, I have explained hashgraph under this topic but it remain Blockchain. I would like to painpoint on little of it's meaning.

Blockchain is an underlying technology that is used by the first of every cryptocurrency out there, which is Bitcoin. Blockchain is one of the most popular forms of distributed ledger technology. In Blockchain, communication occur in peers in order to form a peer to peer network. Blockchain can also be define as a series of blocks or records.

Also, Blockchain data is immutable, which simply means, once the data is once written, it can not be deleted or edited by anyone. The data stored in the previous blocks can not by any chance be change.

Block chain Vs Hashgraph

  1. About Security, no doubt Blockchain and Hashgraph are very strong in term of security but they make use of different approach. Blockchain has a different approach, where they utilize cryptographic methods to make sure security for the data stored and transmitted on the network. While Hashgraph Hashgraph utilizes Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerance (aBFT) to protect the network from bad behavior.

  2. Approach, Blockchain stores data in blocks I.e. in a linear way. While Hashgraph, on the other hand, utilizes the directed acyclic graph for storing and accessing information.

  3. In Consensus Algorithm, the popular consensus algorithms used in Blockchain are; Proof-of-Work, Proof-of-Stake, Proof-of-Elapsed Time, and so on. While, Hashgraph uses virtual voting as the form of gaining network consensus. However, hashgraph is a consensus algorithm, but it does have a lot to offer in the final details.

  4. Speed- If we should talk about speed, Blockchain speed is slower than Hashgraph speed. Blockchain solution (Ethereum,Bitcoin etc.) Are considerably slow because it can only offer a transaction speed of only 100 to 10,000 per second. While Hashgraph, can reach 5,000,000 transaction per second.

  5. When it comes to Fairness, Blockchain is less fair when it comes to miner's or user's. Miner have more power when it comes to selecting or they want to proccess, even to stop transactions. This is not fair for those that are connected directly or indirectly to the network. While Hashgraph handling of fairness is dirrent, where it allocates nodes randomly and that no individual is affected due to the order of the transactions.

Voting process in my country, Nigeria.

For my country Nigeria, I would like to choose Hashgraph technology becuase of one of it's second technique "Virtual Voting". Virtual Voting is an electronic means of taking care of casting and counting of votes and it's also involve voting through phones, private computer networks or internet and also transmission of ballots. But, virtual voting in hashgraph is done in a way that is transparent to other nodes in the network. They all know the nodes that has voted and the details of the vote in the quest to reach a consensus in a transaction. Virtual Voting has several benefit one which is, it ensures that members always calculate their votes according to the rule.

So, choosing hashgraph technology is a very good idea because Nigeria has more than 150million citizen with over 50 million registered citizen. with the huge number of citizen, hashgraph will be the best option. Nigeria citizen have suffered alot under the electoral committee because it is very easy for them to turn the vote by giving post to someone who doesn't worth it. But if virtual voting in hashgraph is involved it will promote the truth and culsion those that can practice malpratice in the election process.

Hashgraph operate with the Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerance which happens to be the strongest protocol in the the Byzantine Fault Tolerance and that means success to reach the consensus and hence verify and validate a transaction is possible while if there is any one who want or intend to hack the system will need to attack the different nodes available in the network, at the same time which is very impossible.



Question 4

Explore Hedera Hashgraph link show screenshots.


Firstly, what do we mean by Hedera Hashgraph?
Hedera hashgraph can be define as a ledger that distributed Technology which also has a new pattern of distributing consensus. It gives a very fast, fair, with high level of security to secure infrastructure and also to run decentralized application. Hedera hashgraph it's own coin and the coin which can also be called HBAR. According to coinmarketcap the current Price is $0.2506 with the total supply of 50,000,000,000 HBAR.

Screenshot_20210603-144238_1.png
coinmarketcap

Exploration of Hedera Hashgraph start with this link hedera. Com. I will be using my phone for the exploration.

Click on this link on your browser which is either on your destop or mobile phone. In will take you to the page below.

Screenshot_20210603-145833_3.png
Hadera homepage, screenshoted from hadera. Com

As you can see the read circle at the top, click on the three lines, For you to see the items on Hedera.

Screenshot_20210603-150116_1.png
Hadera items, screenshoted from hadera. Com

Click on Network. You will see two different thing under network. Which is Service and information. But we will be talking about about it service.

Screenshot_20210603-153331_1.png
Network page, screenshoted from hadera. Com

Under services, network option gives the user the opportunity to have the Hedera Token service. This enable the user to manage, mint, and configure native fungible and non-fungible tokens on the Hedera network without needing to deploy a smart contract. While consensus service allows for a Verifiable timestamps and ordering of events for any application.

Screenshot_20210603-153048_1.png
Dev page screenshoted from hadera. Com.

Under Dev, we also have different option like tooling which has Doc- it gives the details of all we should know about Hedera Hashgraph. Another one under DEV is Haedera SDK- which offers the Hedera API in different languages. We also have Resourceswhich has Intergretion- It allows users to integrate their existing application or permissioned blockchain framework into the Hedera network. Another one is Fees- that shows the fee schedules as decided the governing council, this could be a good tool for developers that wants to know the amount of integration in the Hedera network. Also under resources, we have the Open Source option which tells a few things about Hedera Hashgraph on github and the last one on the list Learning Center- that take users on a ride about Hedera Hashgraph.

Screenshot_20210603-200619_1.png
The list of use cases screenshoted from hadera. Com

Use cases, this have come with different section, which are Payment, Token Asset, Fraud Mitigation, Identity, Data Complaince and Permissions. The other things that is there are the thing you can build on Hedera. They are, Case study, Enterprise, Health card and Gaming.

Screenshot_20210603-201526_1.png
HBAR page with is fellow Hadera item screenshoted from hadera. Com

Hbar also have different section. The first one is Overview. The second,
Account Creation. The third section, Wallet and Exchange. The first section shows about the overview of Hedera's CryptocurrencyHBAR. The second one, Hedera gives user's space and oppurtunity to create their own new Hedera's
Mainnet account. And the last one, Hedera gives opportunity to find Hbar surported wallet and exchange.

Screenshot_20210603-203433_1.png
Hadera governance council pagescreenshoted from hadera. Com

Governance - it explain to us those that Hedera hashgraph was builded, those who owned and governed Hedera's hashgraph.

Screenshot_20210603-204340_1.png
Source

This section, on Hedera Hashgraph shows sub-sections like; Team, Journey, Roadmap, User Group, Careers, Media, Press, News, Blog and Papers. Each of this section give user's what they are looking for as regards as the links gives user what they are looking for as regards the link title.

The next image I will be showing you now is the leadership Team of Hadera Hasgraph. They are the back bone on Hadera Hasgraph.

Screenshot_20210603-204452_1.png
Source

Screenshot_20210603-204420_2.png
Source

Screenshot_20210603-204513_1.png
Source

Screenshot_20210603-204526_1.png
Source

In conclusion, Hashgraph is a good innovation to crypto ecosystem. As it's like an option to Blockchain, it aim to tackle some shortcomings of the existing Blockchain. This topic as really helped me in my research about cryptocurrencies.

I want to say a very big thank to Prof. @Pelon53 for this wonderful topic and i also want to thank everyone that will be viewing my post. Thank you!

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Gracias por participar en Steemit Crypto Academy:

Es necesario justificar el texto, colocar una portada a las tareas.

Explicar con un poco más de profundidad Tolerancia a fallas Bizantinas asincrónicas.

Espero seguir leyendo tus publicaciones.

Escala de Estimación.Puntaje.Observación
Protocolo Gossip.2.0Explico el protocolo de Gossip.
Tolerancia a Fallas Bizantinas.1.4Faltó profundizar un poco más.
Hashgraph Vs Blockchain (proceso de votación).1.8Hizo la comparacióny eligió su plataforma.
Explore Hedera Hashgraph.1.7Exploró la plataforma Hedera.
Originalidad0.0Nada original
Presentación/cumplimiento de reglas.0.5Justificar el texto.

Calificación: 7.4