Einstein went out to the world with the theory of special relativity at the age of 26, and then came out of the general version at the age of 36, and then died at the age of 76 years. The question here is why Einstein did not add anything important to science for the full 40 years since he left public relations until his death?
The answer to this question requires back a few hundred years:
There is a dream for physicists to come up with a unified theory that explains everything, explains the relationship between different forces in nature (light, heat, gravity, etc.) and the relationships between them.
The dream began from Descartes who saw in mathematics (totalitarian science) that explains everything. Newton opposed this idea. He saw mathematics as a means of understanding, but a holistic science that can explain everything is mechanics, which uses mathematics as a tool. But Newton's view was not an important sign in the dream.
The most important sign in the realization of this dream was the Law of Attraction which he discovered. The law used to calculate the force that affects the fall of a small apple from a tree is the same law that is used to calculate the forces that influence Jupiter during its rotation around the sun. This is the beginning of the truth that convinced the scientists that perhaps this dream was already achievable.
The second important milestone on the dream road was Maxwell's equations. Maxwell came up with four equations that connect the electricity that goes into the wire and the resulting magnetic field and vice versa. This person was able to find the relationship between two of the forces of nature that seemed to be separate or unrelated, namely electricity and magnetism. This is an important step in the way of reaching this old dream.
Einstein believed in the idea of a unified theory, and had special respect for Maxwell because of his contribution to turning this dream into reality. Einstein's own relativity was an addition to this dream because it linked gravity to time and showed how time can accelerate in areas of intense gravity such as those found in black holes.
Here's a problem: Einstein's theories apply only to large objects, but they do not apply to fine objects like the electron. You can use Relativity to study black holes but you can not use them to study the atom. If we want to study the atom, there is a science of welder is the science of quantum mechanics, a science used to study the exact objects, but not suitable for the study of planets and stars.
For Einstein this was a step back, a step back to using a separate theory for each field instead of moving toward a unified theory that could interpret and study everything.
Quantum mechanics is basically a science of possibilities. If you have an electron whose energy also collides with such a barrier of energy, quantum mechanics does not tell you whether the electron will cross the barrier or not, but tells you that it will cross the barrier with a certain probability, 30 percent.
For example, if a hundred electrons collide with the same barrier, 30 of them will pass, but we can not know which one will cross and which will stop. Everything in quantum mechanics is based on probabilities and uncertainties, nothing quite specific. There is a famous law in quantum mechanics that says you can measure the speed of an electron or know its place, but you can not know both at the same time, either this or that. This principle is called the "uncertainty principle".
This was another problem for Einstein. Einstein believed that the creator of the universe was so omnipotent and omniscient that he rejected the Jewish and Christian religious perceptions prevalent in Europe because he saw God as deficient, sometimes ignorant and sometimes mistaken.
When Einstein heard about quantum mechanics and that it was a science based on probability, his famous word, God does not play dice, God does not play dice. God knows exactly which electron will pass and which electron will stop, it does not deal with possibilities. Heisenberg, one of the most famous quantum mechanics, and the owner of the uncertainty principle, replied, "Maybe he is already playing Maybe he does."
In this life there is an amazing world, where all we perceive about reality and what we know about nature is wrong, and where the laws of this world have redefined our understanding in a new and amazing way: quantum laws in the micro world.
The laws of this world are strange, but they are not fantasies, hieroglyphs or poetic codes that do not guarantee the world of science and do not reap hunger. They are facts confirmed by mathematical equations and practical applications in various areas of life.
Quantum physics, however, continues to strike one after the other for a sense of clarity and common sense, as it defies Aristotelian logic with its three pillars: identity, non-convergence of extremes, and the principle of the third raised. "Anyone who read quantum theory and was not surprised did not understand it," says the Danish scientist and physicist and father of quantum physics.
Quantum theory is based on two basic concepts: the first is the concept of superposition, which means that the particle can take two or more situations at the same time, and that the process of measurement or monitoring is the one that drives it to take only one case, for example the electron can be found in more than one place At the same time, when we monitor it will disappear all the possibilities will need the electron in one place ..
To understand this well, we must address the experience of the double-fault, in which scientists tried to understand the nature of electrons.
If we launch a group of electrons into a sensitive screen that receives these electrons, we put between the screen and the electron gun a small slit in the shape of a rectangular longitudinal, and we fired the electrons from the cannon, it will pass from the slit and complete its way to the screen to draw a shape corresponding to the shape of the slit in the panel in the middle . That is, the electrons will be formed on the screen behind the hole that passed through it completely.
It seems so natural now that electrons are particles that can be likened to baseball balls and behave accordingly
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