Microorganism #2; Bacteria As A Prokaryote

2년 전


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Hi everyone,

It has been awhile since the last time I started this series. My objective of writing this article is to learn more about microorganism and at the same time, educate my readers. Microorganisms are not uncommon, and we know that the majority of people have some form basic knowledge about this particular creature. People knew that we're getting sick not for nothing; for most of the time, the cause can be traced back to the presence of microorganisms in the system which causes the some of the protective mechanism in the body to be activated, i.e. fever. In this article, we will explore through some of the basic facts about bacteria, a microscopic organism which makes up for a whole lot of figures in existence.

Introduction




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Bacteria can be found almost anywhere on earth be it in the environment you are living in, in the ocean, in the forest and even in your digestive system. It is an integral component which determines the health of an individual. Unlike a eukaryote, bacteria are considered as prokaryotes as they lacked a membrane-bound nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Prokaryotes have the reputation of being adaptive as it can accustom to almost different kind of ecological habitat making it one of the most abundant living organisms ever lived on earth. They use a variety organic and inorganic compound as food sources to fulfil metabolic demands to live.

This particular microorganism can cause a different kind of effect when interacting with humans. Some of them can give a mutual benefit by acting as a biological agent that would aid in a particular task such as digestion, but some can cause disease. They are an essential living agent which can undergo some process which is vital for plants and any living invertebrates. Those processes include cellulose degradation and nitrogen fixation process (cyanobacteria). Nitrogen fixation process can contribute to the fertility of the soil which would ensure a better plant developmental process.

Prokaryotes




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There are two types of cells which inhabit the earth:

  • Eukaryotes
  • Prokaryotes

One of the most distinct characteristics of a eukaryotic cell has compared to prokaryotes is that the genetic materials in a eukaryote are contained within a membrane-closed nucleus. In the past, all of the prokaryotes are considered bacteria. There is no other organism, and the Archaea was later added to the list after it has been found that both of this microorganism are similar in appearances:

  • Both have circular genetic materials
  • Both don't have intracellular organelles

They are considered as two different domains based on the ancient genetic evidence, evolutionary lineage, physiological factors and chemical factors.


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Compared to eukaryotes, prokaryotes are much simpler regarding cellular design which includes lack of intracellular organelles which has been a hallmark of a eukaryote cell. So what is organelle? I've been mentioning this word a few times already, and for those who don't know what an organelle is, it is a structure that can be found in the cytoplasm which is equipped with a membrane. Some of the organelles are:

  • Nucleus: This is like a brain of a cell. It contains some genetic materials which can be expressed and retained.
  • Mitochondria: This is the powerhouse of a cell. It provides energy for the cell to operate
  • Chloroplast: This is a structure which contains units of chlorophyll which is responsible for converting light energy into metabolic energy.
  • Lysosome: This is a housekeeping cell which contains degradative enzymes, necessary for digesting proteins and any other nutrients.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi Apparatus: Two organelles which are responsible for protein synthesis and release.

The fact that prokaryotes are much smaller than eukaryotes mean that some of the functions which are mentioned above are not carried out by any specialised organelles. This cell is capable of growing and multiplying rapidly in almost any condition (that will depend on the type of prokaryotes, some of the thermophilic bacteria can survive in a hot environment).


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There are a few domains which we can use to differentiate eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic cells:

  • Structure of some critical metabolic enzymes
  • The composition of lipid
  • Effect of antibiotic and toxin on prokaryotes and eukaryotes
  • The way genetic material being expressed

This is rather a simplified information that explains how different bacteria as a prokaryote when compared to another living organism (eukaryote). I have decided to divide the information about bacteria to a few chapters that would be explained in the subsequent series. Let's hope I will be healthy enough to do some reading and eventually come up with some information about the structure of bacteria.

Thank you for your attention.

References


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Thanks for the refreshing course, nice one

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No problem.

I remember reading about bacteria well enough in secondary school. Biology was quite interesting its a field i would have opted for if i didn't study engineering. Thanks for the memories. Great job

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No problem and thanks for stopping by.

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You are welcome, sir.

There are two types of cells which inhabit the earth:
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes

What about archaea? I mean aren't there 3 domains

(Just bugging btw)

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Yeah, I used to think they are a different kind of domains also. It turns out, archaea are prokaryotes. Maybe you can enlighten me if the information I gave is wrong?

Interesting one @mawarmerah
Well I was also planning to write on a similar topic of microorganism...
Will be waiting fo the next series......
Cheers

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Thank you @vinamra. I'm looking forward to read your article as well.